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ap world history


A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that was based on reason and the concept that education and training could improve humankind and society

Benjamin Franklin

American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.

George Washington

Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799).

Joseph Brant

Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution. (p. 581)

Constitutional Convention

Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.

estates general

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.


Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.

Maximilien Robespierre

Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.

Napoleon Bonaparte

General who Overthrew the French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exiled.

Gens de couleur

Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution.

Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture

Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French. (p. 593)

Congress of Vienna

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon

Revolutions of 1848

Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed

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