A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that was based on reason and the concept that education and training could improve humankind and society
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799).
Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution. (p. 581)
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
General who Overthrew the French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exiled.
Gens de couleur
Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution.
Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French. (p. 593)
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed