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You are assessing a 55-year-old male complaining of chest pain and have determined that his radial pulse is barely palpable. You also determine that there were 20 pulsations over 30 seconds. Based on this how would you report this patient's pulse?
Pulse 40 and weak
Which of the following patients does NOT require the administration of supplemental oxygen?
A 24-year-old woman who is breathing 28 times per minute after being in an argument with her husband
A medical identification tag or card such as a Medic Alert bracelet can give you information about which of the following?
All of these
Your patient is a motorcyclist who was ejected from his vehicle due to striking a guard rail. The patient is unresponsive to painful stimuli and is breathing six to eight times per minute. Which of the following should you do first?
Use a bag-valve-mask with supplemental oxygen.
You are ventilating a 55-year-old male patient with a stoma. Which of the following is NOT necessary?
Which of the following is true concerning the procedure for inserting a nasopharyngeal airway?
The bevel should be turned toward the nasal septum.
A patient being transported by ambulance to the hospital can have his blood pressure measured by which of the following methods?
Any of these
Which of the following may result from delivery of ventilations that are more forceful than necessary?
All of these
On which of the following types of calls should you bring your portable suction unit to the patient's side upon arrival on the scene?
All of these
You have arrived at the scene of a call for a "man down." As you enter the residence you note that your patient is a male in his mid-60s who is awake but does not seem to acknowledge your presence. He is perspiring profusely has cyanosis of his ears and lips and has rapid shallow respirations. Which of the following should you do first?
Assist ventilations with a bag-valve-mask and supplemental oxygen.
Which of the following characteristics of the patient's pulse should the EMT be concerned with checking?
All of these
All of the following EXCEPT which one can result in an inaccurate oxygen saturation reading?
All of these
To deliver high-flow oxygen to a breathing patient which of the following is the best device?
You have been called for a patient who has overdosed on drugs and alcohol. The patient is responsive to painful stimuli and is breathing 8 times a minute but exhibits no cyanosis. You would recognize and do which of the following?
Inadequate respirations initiate positive pressure ventilation with supplemental oxygen.
Your patient is an unresponsive 40-year-old woman. Which of the following should you do first?
Perform a rapid physical exam.
When assessing a patient with a medical complaint which piece of information will be obtained first and will serve to guide the order of the exam after the initial assessment has been completed?
Level of consciousness
You have been dispatched to a residence for an 89-year-old female with an unspecified complaint. When assessing this patient which of the following will the EMT need to determine first to get a better picture of the situation?
Determine if the complaint is medical- or trauma-related.
A first responder informs you that a 59-year-old female is responsive to verbal stimuli. Which of the following presentations would you expect?
The patient's eyes are closed but she will wiggle her fingers when told.
Your patient has been hit in the arm with a baseball during practice. He is alert and oriented complaining of pain to his left arm with obvious black discoloration of the skin. Which of the following best describes this patient's injury?
Which of the following patients would be considered the lowest priority for care of the four patients listed?
72-year-old man complaining of leg pain for a week
The EMT recognizes that for a trauma patient who is alert and oriented he would obtain the SAMPLE history during what component of patient assessment?
Focused history and physical exam
The EMT understands the importance and reason for forming a general impression about the patient when he makes which of the following statements?
"Forming a general impression provides me with a rough idea of the patient's status."
For which of the following patients would a focused physical exam be appropriate?
A 28-year-old man complaining of a rash on his legs
En route to the hospital you start the ongoing assessment of a 22-year-old trauma patient. You would begin this assessment by:
Repeating the initial assessment.
Which of the following is NOT a consideration that should be used by the EMT in establishing the size of the danger zone?
The amount of equipment needed
You have just arrived on the scene of a motor vehicle collision in which a compact car was struck from behind by a delivery truck. The driver of the delivery truck is standing outside his vehicle talking to police when you arrive but the driver of the car is still seated in the driver's seat. You have noted moderate damage to the rear of the car. For which of the following injuries should you have the highest level of suspicion?
You are interviewing a prospective candidate for the position of EMT with your service. During the interview you ask the applicant to describe the purpose of the initial assessment. Which statement made by the applicant indicates a proper understanding of the initial assessment?
"The purpose of the initial assessment is to identify and treat life- threatening conditions."
Your patient is a 29-year-old female who was the front seat passenger in a vehicle that was struck in the passenger's side door by a vehicle that ran a red light. Which of the following is most likely to have occurred?
The patient's body was pushed forcefully out from under her head causing injury to the cervical spine.
Forming the general impression is generally completed during which phase of patient assessment?
A fall is considered severe anytime the patient has fallen from a height more than ________ times the height of the patien
Which of the following observations made during the initial assessment indicates the best methods by which to assess the adequacy of a patient's breathing?
Looking at the rise and fall of the chest.
The EMT recognizes that the most pertinent source of information for a responsive medical patient with a specific chief complaint and no known prior medical history is obtained from the
You are alone in the back of the ambulance where you are ventilating an apneic patient. Which of the following is the best way to manage the ongoing assessment?
Continue ventilating the patient during transport and skip the ongoing assessment.
When assessing a conscious trauma patient's circulation during the initial assessment the EMT's assessment would include:
Radial pulse skin temperature presence of external bleeding.
As you enter the room of a 64-year-old female with shortness of breath you hear snoring respirations. Your immediate action when you reach her side would be to:
Perform the head tilt-chin lift.
Which of the following is true concerning scene size-up?
The need for additional resources must be determined on both medical and trauma calls.
When you are caring for a patient with either a medical complaint or traumatic injury you would typically perform the detailed physical exam:
While transporting the patient to the hospital.
You are assessing a patient who overdosed on a medication and has a decreased level of consciousness. Which of the following is a concern to the EMT regarding the decreased level of consciousness and potential airway occlusion?
Relaxation of the tongue.
At which of the following points should you begin your scene size-up?
As you approach the scene in the ambulance
An 18-year-old female with a history of diabetes twisted her right ankle while playing volleyball. She is alert and oriented and states that the pain is excruciating. The initial assessment is complete and yields no life-threatening conditions. Your next action would be to:
Assess the right ankle and foot.
A patient has fallen through a large plate glass window. As you approach you note the patient to be sitting up holding his hand over a large laceration that is spurting bright red blood. On arrival at the patient's side you would immediately:
Apply direct pressure to the laceration.
You are performing the rapid trauma exam and assessing a patient's chest. Which of the following findings would you most associate with fracture of the ribs?
Paradoxical chest wall motion.
When assessing the breath sounds of a critical trauma patient it is best to auscultate in at least how many places?
You arrive on the scene of a motor vehicle collision and are presented with a patient complaining of chest pain after striking his chest on the steering wheel. He is alert and oriented and has a patent airway. His respirations are 24 with good chest rise and fall and his skin is warm and dry. Immediately after completing the initial assessment the EMT would:
Provide oxygen via a nonrebreather mask.
The primary purpose of establishing the mechanism of injury in a trauma patient is to determine which of the following?
Mrs. Butler is a 66-year-old woman who is complaining of chest pain. Which of the following questions would be best in helping you determine if the pain is radiating?
Are you having pain anywhere besides your chest?.
Which of the following methods should be used to have a patient rate the amount of pain he is having?
Have the patient rate the pain on a scale of 1 (least) to 10 (worst).
An intoxicated patient iscomplaining of a severe headache and large hematoma to the left side of his face after being accidentally struck with a baseball bat. In this situation being struck with the baseball bat would be the:
Mechanism of injury.
You are on the scene of a tanker truck versus passenger vehicle collision on a rural highway. The vehicles are just beyond a curve in the roadway and there is a distinct odor of diesel fuel. It is dark and there is little traffic. Which of the following should be used to alert oncoming traffic to the situation?
When performing the scene size-up which of the following will the EMT address?
The need for additional personnel.
A patient has been shot once in the left hand. After performing the initial assessment the EMT quickly focuses his attention on the left hand and begins a specific assessment of the injury. This would indicate that what type of assessment is being performed?
Focused trauma exam.
Which of the following statements made by an EMT indicates a correct understanding of capillary refill?.
"For a capillary refill test to be normal for a child it must be assessed at room temperature and be less than 2 seconds.
In which of the following patients should you check for the possibility of spinal injury?
An unresponsive diabetic who appears to have fallen down.
Which of the following situations requires action by the EMT during scene size-up?
All of the above.
You are transporting a victim of domestic violence a 25-year-old female who was struck on the head several times with a baseball bat. On the scene she was responsive to verbal stimuli and was bleeding profusely from an open head wound. During transport the patient becomes unresponsive. Which of the following should you do next?
During your initial assessment you find your patient's skin to be warm pink and dryThis would seemingly indicate:
A male patient was found in cardiac arrest by co-workers at a schoolOn arrival you determined him to be in cardiac arrest and you started CPRThe AED was quickly placed and shocked him once restoring a heartbeatDuring transport the patient remains unresponsive but is breathing and has a pulseWhen conducting the ongoing exam on the patient the EMT should do which of the following?
Recheck vital signs every 5 minutes
Family states that their 16-year-old daughter has a history of asthma and has been complaining of shortness of breath for the past two daysShe has been taking her metered dose inhaler with some relief but today when she didn't get out of bed they found her lethargic and struggling to breathYour assessment reveals her to be responsive to verbal stimuli with a patent airway and respirations of 36 a minuteYour immediate action in caring for this patient would be:
Positive pressure ventilation
When performing the initial assessment the EMT finds the patient to be unresponsive with vomitus in her airwayThe EMT would next:
Suction the airway
During ongoing assessment you notice that your patient is making gurgling soundsWhich of the following should you do immediately?
Suction the airway
At a nursing home you find a patient extremely short of breathTo best determine if the patient is cyanotic you would:
Examine the lining of the lips and mouth
While you are performing a focused physical exam your trauma patient suddenly complains of the sudden onset of difficulty breathingYou would:
Stop your exam and provide appropriate care
Which of the following statements indicates that the EMT has a proper understanding of the detailed physical exam?
"The steps of the detailed physical exam are similar to the steps of the rapid or focused trauma or medical exam."
When assessing the chest of a patient who was shot multiple times you find a gunshot wound to the third intercostal space on the left lateral chestYour immediate action would be to:
Cover the opening with an occulsive dressing
Which of the following best defines the term "chief complaint"?
The patient's description of his problem
Family states that their 16-year-old daughter has a history of asthma and has been complaining of shortness of breath for the past two days She has been taking her metered dose inhaler with some relief but today when she didn't get out of bed they found her lethargic and struggling to breath Your assessment reveals her to be responsive to verbal stimuli with a patent airway and respirations of 36 a minute Your immediate action in caring for this patient would be:
Positive pressure ventilation
A 2-year-old boy who just seized must have his airway openedWhen performing the head tilt-chin lift airway maneuver the EMT must remember
The head should only be slightly extended
You are transporting a 30-year-old male who has been shot in the chestHe is suffering from a sucking chest wound and has a decreased level of consciousnessHow often should you perform an ongoing assessment?
Every 5 minutes
When using the memory aid SAMPLE which of the following would you do to determine "L"?
Ask "When was the last time you had anything to eat or drink?" What is the purpose of reassessing and recording findings of the ongoing assessment so they can be compared to earlier findings often called?,Trending
Your patient is a 66-year-old man complaining of a headache for the past two daysWhich of the following should be done during a focused physical examination?
Inspecting the scalp
You are assessing an 8-month-old whose mother states has been vomiting for two days and not eating or drinkingWhen assessing the pulse you would check which site?
Which of the following is NOT a consideration for the EMT when performing an ongoing assessment?
Distance to the hospital
You are by the side of a patient complaining of shortness of breath and a history of heart failureWhen assessing the airway which of the following observations would best indicate that the patient's airway is not compromised?
She easily verbalizes that she is having chest pain
Which of the following assessment findings would indicate that the patient has intact motor function in his lower extremities?
He can wiggle his toes when instructed
Which of the following does the EMT recognize as true concerning the ongoing assessment?
The purpose of the ongoing assessment is to detect changes in the patient's status
At the scene of a vehicle collision in which there are no apparent hazards which of the following guidelines should be followed for establishing a danger zone?
The danger zone should be 50 feet in all directions
During assessment of a responsive medical patient you perform the focused history using the memory aid SAMPLETo obtain information related to "M" which of the following questions would you ask?
"Are you currently taking any medications?"
In the assessment of a responsive medical patient which of the following will provide you with the most important information?
The patient's medical history
During your ongoing assessment you note that oxygen is not filling the reservoir bag on the non-rebreather you have placed on the patient Which of the following should you check?
All of the above
You are transporting a 20-year-old soccer patient who injured his ankle during a matchHis injury appears to be isolated and he has no significant past medical historyHow frequently should you perform an ongoing assessment on this patient?
Your patient is a 45-year-old man complaining of chest painHe has no prior history and has not taken any medicationsWhich of the following sets of blood pressure measurements taken at 10 minute intervals should lead you to conclude that the patient's condition is deteriorating?
110/70 102/62 90/56
The action of evaluating the scene for hazards that may harm the EMT is conducted:
Throughout the entire call
You have been called for an 83-year-old female who is having difficulty breathing. On scene you find the woman sitting upright in a chair in obvious respiratory distress. She informs you that she has congestive heart failure and feels as though she is filling up with fluid. The initial assessment shows her to be alert and oriented with inadequate breathing. Her pulse is rapid and weak and her skin is cool and dry. When performing a focused medical assessment which of the following signs related to heart failure would you specifically look for when examining the patient's neck?
Jugular vein distention
In which of the following circumstances is manual stabilization of the cervical spine always necessary?
Trauma above the level of the clavicles
The EMT has formed a general impression of poor for a patient who has been assaulted by a mob of angry people in a bar. The patient is confused tachycardic and has cool skin and a poor capillary refill. The EMT's next action would be to:
Perform the rapid trauma assessment.
A 41-year-old male patient has fallen from a second-story roof. He is complaining of right leg pain and pain to his pelvic region. When performing the rapid trauma assessment on this patient which of the following would the EMT intentionally not perform?
Palpation of the pelvic region
Which of the following must the EMT remember when assessing the respirations of a pediatric patient?
The rate is usually faster than that of an adult.
Your patient is a 22-year-old college student complaining of abdominal pain. She is alert and oriented although somewhat uncomfortable. Which of the following should be your first action?
Ask the patient to describe the pain and find out if she has other complaints.
A 40-year-old male patient has crashed his motorcycle. He complains of pain to his right leg. When palpating his leg you are assessing for:
As you are assessing a 32-year-old asthmatic woman who has called EMS due to difficulty breathing. Her husband enters the home through a back door and shouts "Get your hands off her she doesn't need your help. She needs to be taught a lesson about her smart mouth." Which of the following is the best course of action?
Leave the scene and patient then notify police.
Which statement made by the EMT indicates an understanding of shock caused by internal bleeding?
"You should always suspect internal bleeding in a patient with the signs and symptoms of shock but no external bleeding."
Which of the following is NOT a principle of splinting that must be considered by the EMT?
Gently replace protruding bone ends back beneath the skin to prevent further contamination.
A 51-year-old male was burned in the face after a steam valve was accidentally opened. His face is red and swollen and he is screaming in pain. He also states that he is having a hard time seeing. The EMT's priority concern in caring for this patient is:
A student in a science lab has had an unknown chemical splashed into her eye. After assessing the airway breathing and circulation the EMT would immediately:
Flush the eye with copious amounts of tap water.
Which of the following is recommended when caring for an amputated part?
Seal the part in a plastic bag and place in a pan of water cooled by an ice pack.
When a person is in shock the EMT understands that which of the following is occurring in the body?
The cells are not getting enough oxygen and waste products are accumulating.
A patient has suffered an abdominal evisceration. There is no evidence of spinal injury. How would you place the patient on the stretcher?
Supine with knees flexed to his chest
A 51-year-old female patient tripped in the kitchen and fell against a deep fryer splashing hot oil onto her right arm. Assessment reveals partial and deep thickness burns to her arm. It is estimated that the burn covers two percent of her body. Which of the following statements made by the patient reveals the most important information when determining the overall severity of the burn?
"I have been a diabetic for several years."
You are called by the owner of a restaurant for a female patron who spilled hot tea onto her right thigh. Assessment findings obtained from the focused trauma assessment show the skin to be red and painful as well as soft and tender to palpation. The skin is intact with no blister formation noted although slight edema is noted. Based on these assessment findings the EMT would recognize what category of burn?
A 36-year-old man has accidentally shot a nail into his thigh while using a nail gun. Under which of the following circumstances should the nail be removed from the injury?
None of the above.
Which of the following signs is LEAST likely to indicate a traumatic brain injury?
Low blood pressure
A patient has fallen from a second-story window onto the concrete sidewalk below. She is unresponsive and has deformity noted to the back and top of her skull. Additional assessment findings include abdominal bruising and an angulated left ankle. Your partner reports that the patient's vital signs are: pulse 68 respirations 14 and irregular blood pressure 198/110 mmHg and SpO2 91 percent. Based on these assessment findings the EMT would recognize:
Severe head injury with increasing pressure within the skull.
Your patient is a 20-year-old college student who has fallen from a third level balcony onto a wooden deck below. The patient responds to verbal stimuli is pale in color with moist skin and has a very obvious deformity with protruding bone ends of his right forearm. Which of the following is the best sequence of intervention for this patient?
Manual in-line stabilization of the cervical spine along with assessment of breathing pulse and the presence of significant hemorrhage application of high-flow oxygen rapid trauma exam immobilization to a long backboard transport splint the extremity en route if time and resources allow
A 21-year-old male has experienced a severe burn to the left leg while working on an industrial furnace. His coworkers immediately doused his flaming pants and removed them. Your initial assessment reveals no threats to the airway breathing or circulation. When conducting a focused trauma exam to the leg which assessment finding would be the most critical?
Partial thickness burn completely encircles the knee
You have been called for a patient who had a large bag of lime powder tear as he was unloading it from a truck. On arrival you notice that the patient is wearing shorts and has lime dust covering both lower legs. He is complaining of leg pain from the chemical powder. Which statement indicates the appropriate next intervention following the initial assessment?
"Let's brush as much of the lime off his legs as possible."
Your patient is a 60-year-old woman who stepped off a curb and injured her ankle. Your exam shows that her left ankle is swollen and painful. Which of the following should you do?
Explain to the patient that you cannot tell if her ankle is sprained or fractured until she is x-rayed at the emergency department and splint the ankle.
Your patient is a 55-year-old male who was found in the parking lot behind a tavern. He states that he was assaulted and robbed by three individuals. He is complaining of being "hit in the face and kicked and punched in his ribs and stomach." Your examination reveals contusions and swelling around both eyes bleeding from the nose a laceration of his upper lip and multiple contusions of the chest abdomen and flanks. Which of the following should cause the greatest concern regarding the prehospital care of this patient?
A 57-year-old male patient has fallen 20 feet while setting up Christmas lights on the roof. He impacted the ground feet first and has suffered open fractures to both tibias with both bones protruding through the skin. Your assessment reveals him to be responsive to painful stimuli. His airway is open his breathing is rapid and his radial pulse is weak. The skin is cool and diaphoretic. Vital signs are: pulse 132 respirations 24 and BP 106/90 mmHg. According to family he has no medical history. Your partner is providing positive pressure ventilation. At this point in the patient's care it is a priority that the EMT:
Look for other injuries.
Which of the following best explains the reason for minimizing scene-time for the trauma patient with significant hemorrhage or the potential for significant hemorrhage?
Studies have indicated that trauma patients who receive surgery within one hour of injury have betterchances of survival.
Which of the following is appropriate in the examination of a painful swollen extremity of a conscious patient?
Comparing the injured to the uninjured side
You suspect that a patient involved in a motor vehicle collision is in shock. As a knowledgeable EMT you know that which of the following signs and symptoms of shock will be observed last?
Decreased blood pressure
Assessment findings of a driver who was ejected from his vehicle in a rollover-type collision include unresponsiveness and bruising to the abdominal and pelvic areas along with an open femur fracture. The patient has an open airway and is breathing at 32 times a minute. The skin is cool and clammy and the radial pulses are weak. Manual in-line spinal stabilization is being maintained. The EMT's initial intervention would be to:
While on standby at a semi-professional baseball game you are summoned onto the field for a player complaining of severe leg pain after colliding with the catcher of the opposing team. The initial assessment shows no threats to the airway breathing or circulation. The focused trauma assessment reveals a severely deformed knee that is swollen and ecchymotic. The leg is pale and cool and the patient cannot move his leg when asked to do so. Additionally you cannot palpate a pedal pulse. Your priority action at this time would be to:
Attempt to straighten the leg until a pulse returns.
Your patient is a 28-year-old male who was ejected from his motorcycle after striking a parked vehicle. He has multiple deformities to his upper and lower extremities on both sides. Which of the following would be the best way to immobilize this patient's extremities prior to transport?
Immobilizing the patient to a long backboard without splinting the extremities individually
You suspect that a patient with an open pneumothorax may be developing a tension pneumothorax. Which of the following actions is it critical that you take?
Lift one side of the dressing during expiration.
A young boy was running with a pencil and tripped. The pencil impaled the boy's left eye and remains lodged in place. He is in his mother's arms and both are crying hysterically. Appropriate care for the eye would include:
Stabilizing the impaled object and providing immediate transport.
As you pull up to a motor vehicle collision you quickly scan the scene for clues as to the type andseverity of injuries. Which of the following scene clues would best indicate that a patient may have a head injury?
Starring of a windshield
Which of following assessment findings would contraindicate the use of the traction splint?
Deformity to the hip
A tool for assessing a patient's level of responsiveness that uses numerical values to score responses is:
A patient rescued from an apartment fire has sustained partial and full thickness burns from his chest down to his feet. The EMT would recognize that this patient is prone to develop:
Which of the following is part of the body's compensatory response to blood loss?
Blood vessels constrict and heart rate increases.
Which of the following is responsible for most of the signs and symptoms of early shock?
The body's attempts at compensation for blood loss
Hyperventilation of a patient with a severe brain injury means that bag-valve-mask ventilations are provided at a rate of ________ per minute.
A 44-year-old electrician has been shocked. He is responsive to verbal stimuli and has garbled speech. His airway is open and he is breathing shallowly at a rate of 10 times a minute. His pulse is slow and irregular. What would the EMT do next?
Ventilate with a bag-valve mask at 12 breaths per minute.
Your patient is a 6-year-old child who has fallen down while running on a sidewalk. She has abrasions on both knees and the palms of both hands that are oozing blood. This is an example of bleeding from which of the follow types of vessels?
A 41-year-old male patient has been struck in the head with a metal pipe. As you approach the patient you note that he appears combative and has blood to the left side of his face and head and on his shirt. His breathing appears labored and he is incontinent of urine. Your immediate action would be to:
Take manual in-line spinal immobilization.
For which of the following wounds should the EMT apply an absorbent dressing moistened with sterile saline and then cover it with an occlusive dressing?
A gunshot wound to the abdomen from which a loop of intestine is protruding
As you approach a patient you observe dark blood on his pants. He appears confused pale and diaphoretic. Your first action in caring for this patient would be to:
Assess his airway.
A patient fell and sustained an open fracture to the left humerus. Assessment reveals the bone to have pulled back into the arm and bleeding from the site is controlled. How will splinting the left arm benefit this patient?
Decreases the opportunity for further injury to nerves and blood vessels
The EMT recognizes that a benefit of applying the traction splint to a deformed femur and thigh is to:
An alert and oriented 22-year-old male has fallen off a tractor and is complaining of pain to his right leg. As you quickly scan the patient you note obvious deformity to the tibia-fibula region of the lower extremity. After conducting the initial assessment and manually stabilizing the leg the EMT would:
Check for a pedal pulse.
Which of the following best describes the benefit of a three-sided occlusive dressing over a four-sided occlusive dressing for an open chest wound?
It reduces the chances of developing a tension pneumothorax.
A patient has cut his arm with a table saw. Assessment reveals dark red blood flowing steadily from the wound. As an EMT you would recognize:
Severe external bleeding should be controlled during what phase of the patient assessment?
When performing the initial assessment which of the following signs or symptoms would best indicate that the patient is in shock?
Skin that is cool and diaphoretic
Assessment findings on a young female patient who was thrown from a horse and is now confused include an open airway adequate breathing and a strong radial pulse. Her vital signs are also normal. Which of the following questions would be the most important to ask her mother who was riding with her?
"Did she lose consciousness?"
Your unit is on the scene of a 59-year-old male patient who was assaulted while attempting to use the ATM outside the local bank. It appears that the patient's neck was slashed. External bleeding from the large veins in the neck can be dangerous because the:
Venous pressure may be lower than atmospheric pressure and air may be sucked into the vein.
Your patient has been involved in a motor vehicle collision. He has a contusion on his forehead is confused and has bleeding from his nose. His heart rate is 90 per minute blood pressure is 80/58 mmHg respirations are 20 per minute and his skin is cool and clammy. Which of the following sets of injuries should you suspect?
Head injury spine injury and internal bleeding
A patient with a closed fracture to the forearm has been properly splinted when which of the following are effectively immobilized?
Wrist forearm and elbow
Which of the following must be kept in mind when considering the severity of external bleeding?
Signs of shock do not appear until a large amount of blood has been lost.
Which statement made by the EMT indicates an understanding of calculating the body surface area (BSA) burned on a burn patient?
"Determining the BSA is an estimation and should never delay transport of the burn patient to the hospital."
You have been called for an intoxicated patient who sustained a full thickness burn to his leg after passing out against a kerosene heater. After ensuring that the patient's airway breathing and circulation are intact the EMT would cool the burn with water and:
Wrap the burn with a dry sterile dressing.
Which of the following complications may arise from properly splinting an injured extremity?
Ignoring life-threatening problems while focusing on an extremity injury
A patient exhibits swelling and deformity to the wrist. After splinting which of the following positions of the hand is most appropriate?
Fingers curled inward
An injury in which the epidermis remains intact but blood vessels and cells in the dermis are injured is a/an:
Family members report that their 62-year-old mother complained of dizziness and right leg weakness just before falling down a flight of stairs. Your assessment indicates that she is responsive but confused and talking with garbled speech. Her breathing is adequate and her radial pulse is strong. Vital signs are: pulse respirations 18 and blood pressure 188/110 mmHg. There is an open fracture to her right forearm. When instructed to do so she does not move her right arm. When caring for this patient the EMT would:
Immobilize her to the long board and extricate her to the ambulance for immediate transport.
A patient with blunt chest wall trauma has a flail section to her chest. She is conscious and confused and breathing rapidly and shallowly. After manually stabilizing the flail section of the chest wall the EMT would best treat this condition by:
Providing positive pressure ventilation.
The rapid trauma assessment of a young male who was ejected from a motorcycle indicates instability and pain on palpation to the pelvic area. The EMT's primary concern related to the injury would be:
Internal blood loss.
Which of the following best describes the location of the femoral artery pressure point?
At the crease where the thigh meets the trunk
You are assessing an elderly patient who was entrapped in a burning trailer. Which of the following assessment findings would be most indicative that the patient suffered an inhalation injury?
Coughing of black sputum
The severity of shock is classified into three catagories. When the body is able to maintain blood pressure and perfusion it is called _______ shock.
You are attempting to slow the bleeding from a large laceration to a patient's forearm. Since nothing else has been successful in controlling the bleeding you decide to try a pressure point. Which of the following is correct?
Compress the inside of the upper arm and maintain direct pressure to the injury site.
The EMT is by the side of a young female who was cut while washing dishes. She has a jagged laceration to her left forearm that is bleeding steadily and heavily. When applying direct pressure to this injury the EMT would first:
Place a large sterile dressing over the site with hand pressure over top of the dressing.
Which of the following statements indicates that the EMT understands the application of a tourniquet?
"A tourniquet should be applied tight enough so that arterial blood flow distal to the tourniquet is completely stopped."
Your patient is a 30-year-old female involved in a motorcycle crash. She was not wearing a helmet and struck her head on the pavement. She is unresponsive and has a blood pressure of 152/110 mmHg. Her pulse is 60 per minute and respirations are 8 per minute and shallow. Which of the following is NOT an appropriate intervention?
Elevate the legs.
For which patient would the palm method be best to estimate the body surface area affected by a burn?
49-year-old with a partial thickness burn to the inner thigh
The nerves that control the involuntary functions of digestion the bowels and the bladder are part of the _____________ nervous system.
A 44-year-old male struck the windshield of his vehicle with his face in a 50 mile per hour crash. Which of the following injuries should you be prepared to treat?
All of the above
Which of the following describes the proper application of an occlusive dressing for an open chest wound?
Tape the dressing securely on three sides.
Your patient is an 11-year-old male who has a swollen painful angulated right lower arm after falling from his bicycle onto his hands. Which of the following should be considered in the immobilization of his injured extremity?
Check pulse movement and sensation distal to the injury before and after splinting.
Which of the following is an indicator of adequate artificial ventilation in an adult patient?
Pulse rate slows down
Which of the following is an action of insulin?
Decrease the circulating level of glucose in the blood
Which of the following best defines inadequate breathing?
Breathing that is insufficient to sustain life
You are treating a patient with a possible fractured ankle. The patient appears to be in a lot of pain and is uneasy. As you are getting ready to splint the patient's leg he asks you if it is going to hurt. Which of the following is the best response?
"I will do my best but it may hurt while we put the splint on."
Which of the following is a contraindication to the use of a bag-valve-mask to assist a patient's respirations?
None of the above
Your patient is a 68-year-old female with inadequate respirations but with an intact gag reflex. Which of the following should you use to assist you in providing adequate bag-valve-mask ventilations?
You are responding to a nursing home for an 85-year-old patient complaining of difficulty breathing. How would you initiate contact with this patient?
Place yourself at eye-level identify yourself and ask the patient what she would like to be called
Which of the following is NOT a medication that an EMT-B can administer or assist with?
When assessing a patient for a possible stroke which of the following three functions should be tested by the EMT-B?
Control of facial muscles ability to speak ability to hold both arms in an extended position for 10 seconds
A weakened area of an artery that balloons out and may rupture causing catastrophic bleeding is called:
The condition in which there is an insufficient amount of sugar in the blood is called:
You are instructing a first aid class at a local chemical plant. The course also includes instruction regarding an AED that is to be placed in the plant. What point would you emphasize regarding the most common cause of AED failure?
"The batteries must be checked regularly."
Which portion of the heart when weakened by a heart attack would be responsible for causing fluid to back up in and fill the lung tissue?
A contraindication to a medication is:
A reason why you should avoid giving a medication to a patient
A 36-year-old patient has overdosed on an unknown drug and is unresponsive. He is shallowly breathing 6 times a minute and has cyanosis around his lips and to his fingertips. His skin is cool to the touch and his radial pulse is rapid. His breath sounds are diminished but clear. The EMT would recognize what respiratory condition?
You have just applied the AED to a female patient in cardiac arrest and the machine is ready to analyze the heart rhythm. Which of the following instructions is appropriate at this time?
"Stop CPR and clear the patient."
Which of the following is the most important intervention the EMT-Basic can provide to the patient having a stroke?
Avoiding delay in transporting to the hospital
A 47-year-old patient has been in cardiac arrest for 6 minutes. Prior to checking the heart rhythm with the AED the EMT and his or her partner must:
Provide 5 cycles of chest compressions and ventilations.
Which of the following is within the scope of practice of the EMT-B for the treatment of the diabetic patient?
Administration of oral glucose
You have arrived on the scene of a call for a possible stroke. On your arrival the patient denies signs and symptoms is alert and oriented and moves all extremities well. Her husband states that prior to your arrival the patient could not move her right arm and the left side of her face seemed to be "slack." Which of the following has most likely occurred?
The patient suffered a transient ischemic attack
You are attempting to place a non-rebreather on a patient who is experiencing difficulty breathing. The patient is anxious and does not want the mask on his face. Which of the following is the best course of action?
Explain the importance of oxygen and ask the patient to at least try to leave the mask on but that if he can't tolerate it you can try another method
You have just administered nitroglycerin to a 68-year-old patient. Within a few minutes she complains of feeling faint and light-headed but states that she is still having some chest pain. Which of the following would be the best sequence of actions?
Lower the head of the stretcher and take the patient's blood pressure
The death of brain tissue due to deprivation of oxygen because of a blocked or ruptured artery in the brain is known as a/an:
During your radio report to the hospital which of the following pieces of information should NOT be relayed?
Which of the following is characteristic of the patient with hyperglycemia?
Flushed hot dry skin and a "fruity" odor of the breath
Which of the following is the general term used to refer to a problem with the heart?
When assessing a 3-year-old male in respiratory distress the EMT would recognize "see-saw" breathing when he observes which of the following?
Movement of the chest and abdomen opposite directions
Medical direction has requested that you administer 70 grams of activated charcoal to an overdose patient. Which of the following should you do next?
Repeat the order back to the physician to make sure you understood correctly
After the administration of a prescribed inhaler all of the following should be monitored EXCEPT:
Pupillary size and reaction
Assuming your protocol allows the administration of nitroglycerin when certain conditions exist what is the maximum number of tablets to be administered in the prehospital setting?
After giving your radio report to the hospital your patient loses consciousness. Which of the following should you do next?
Reassess the patient
48. In which of the following circumstances is medical control necessary when assisting a patient with the use of a prescribed inhaler?
Medical control is necessary in all situations in which an EMT assists with a prescribed inhaler
49. Your patient is a 59-year-old female with a sudden onset of slurred speech and weakness on her right side. Which of the following measures is appropriate?
If possible transport the patient to a hospital with specialized treatment for stroke patients
A patient who has shallow slow irregular gasping breaths is said to have ________ respirations.
Which of the following is a standardized test to evaluate a conscious patient for possible stroke?
Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale
You are having a hard time getting the past medical history of a patient who is short of breath. Which of the following information would lead the EMT to believe that the patient has a history of chronic lung disease like emphysema or chronic bronchitis?
"Barrel" type chest
A 44-year-old male is experiencing chest pain. He has a history of angina and is prescribed nitroglycerin which he has not taken yet. When obtaining the SAMPLE history which of the following medications he is taking contraindicate the administration of nitroglycerin?
If a cardiac arrest patient were in asystole ("flat line") which of the following messages would the AED provide?
"No shock advised"
Which of the following is the most critical piece of equipment to have immediately available for the seizure patient who has just stopped convulsing?
Which of the following is a possible side effect of a prescribed inhaler for respiratory problems?
In which of the following ways does cardiac arrest in children differ from cardiac arrest in adults?
Cardiac arrest in children is more likely to be due to respiratory failure
Which of the following may result in hypoglycemia in the diabetic patient?
Vomiting after eating a meal
You have been called for a patient who is complaining of shortness of breath. On scene you find the 41-year-old woman sitting upright in bed displaying nasal flaring and wheezing. A metered dose inhaler (MDI) is laying on the nightstand next to her. For the EMT to assist the patient with the MDI which of the following criteria must be met?
The MDI must be prescribed for the patient.
Which of the following is NOT an appropriate oxygen flow rate when using a non-rebreather mask?
8 liters per minute
Your patient is a 21-year-old female with a history of epilepsy. She is having a convulsion on your arrival. Which of the following should you do?
Move furniture and other objects away from the patient to prevent injury
You have been called to a public pool for an unresponsive patient. On arrival you find lifeguards performing CPR with a pocket mask on a 67-year-old male. They report that the patient was in the water and was seen clutching his chest seconds before going unresponsive. He was immediately pulled from the water and CPR was initiated. They estimate that CPR with a pocket mask and oxygen has been being performed for 5 minutes. Assessment shows the man to be unresponsive apneic and pulseless. Which comment by the EMT would be appropriate first?
"Let's take a towel and dry off his chest."
When giving a radio report to the hospital which of the following should be stated first?
The patient is a 55-year-old male
Which of the following medications must be prescribed by the patient's physician before the EMT-B can assist the patient with or administer the medication?
For the EMT-B which of the following is the most important question to ask of a diabetic patient or his family members?
When was the last time you had something to eat?
A 7-year-old boy choked on a grape at school. By the time the obstruction was removed assessment revealed him to be in cardiac arrest. When you arrive teachers are performing CPR. The school nurse informs you that CPR has been in progress for 6 minutes. You have an AED but do not have a pediatric conversion device that reduces the energy of defibrillation from that of an adult to that of a child. Your immediate action would be to:
Place the electrodes on the boy's chest and follow the AED's prompts.
Which of the following is NOT considered a principle of proper radio usage in EMS?
Speak as quickly as possible
After analyzing a cardiac arrest patient's heart rhythm the AED provides a "Deliver Shock" message. After clearing the patient the EMT's next step would be to:
Press the shock button then perform CPR for two minutes.
When you hear wheezes while auscultating your patient's breath sounds which of the following is most likely the cause?
The lower air passages in the lungs are narrowed
Which of the following describes status epilepticus?
Two or more seizures with tonic-clonic activity without an intervening period of consciousness
Which of the following should you anticipate and therefore ask the patient about when giving nitroglycerin to a patient?
All of the above
Which of the following agencies assigns and licenses radio frequencies?
The Federal Communications Commission
Which of the following describes the sublingual route of medication administration?
The medication is placed under the tongue
During a scene size-up which of the following observations most strongly suggests that the patient suffers from a chronic respiratory disease?
Tripod positioned by the patient
Which of the following patients with difficulty breathing should NOT receive supplemental oxygen?
Oxygen should not be withheld from any of the above patients
Your patient is a 15-year-old male with a history of multiple prior hospitalizations for asthma. Upon your arrival the patient responds only to painful stimuli and is making very weak respiratory effort. Which of the following should you do next?
Assist the patient's ventilations with a bag-valve-mask device and supplemental oxygen
A confused and agitated 50-year-old female patient has chronic bronchitis. The initial assessment reveals a breathing rate of 8 times per minute and cool clammy skin. Your next action should be to:
Assist respirations with positive pressure ventilation.
When recording a patient's list of medications on your patient care report which of the following should be included?
Prescription medications over the counter medications and herbal supplements
Of the following which is the preferred method for assisting a patient's ventilations?
Two rescuer bag-valve-mask
When using a semi-automatic external defibrillator which of the following people is responsible for calling to "clear" the patient prior to delivering a shock?
The EMT operating the defibrillator
Which of the following is the EMT-Basic's role in caring for a patient with chest pain?
Treat the patient as though he were having a heart attack
You have been called for a 2-year-old male who is sick and having a difficult time breathing. On scene you find the patient in his mother's arms. He appears to have slightly labored breathing and skin that is warm to the touch. Which of the additional assessment findings listed below would the EMT recognize as the most serious?
Grunting noise heard as the child exhales
Which of the following would be the result of an obstruction in a branch of the pulmonary artery?
Blood is not pumped to the lung
Which of the follow actions is it essential that the EMT take prior to assisting the patient in taking his nitroglycerin tablet?
Evaluate the patient's blood pressure.
Your patient is a 44-year-old female who has collapsed while jogging. She has been unresponsive for 4 to 5 minutes by the time you arrive. Her husband appears to be performing high-quality CPR. Which of the following should be your first action?
Apply the AED.
Which of the following is the primary beneficial effect caused by use of a prescribed inhaler?
Relaxation of the bronchioles
When ventilating a child with inadequate respirations which of the following is the rate at which artificial respirations should be delivered?
20 per minute
Which of the following respiratory rates is NOT considered to be in the normal range for an adult?
Which of the following is NOT proper when assisting a patient with the use of a prescribed inhaler?
Have the patient inhale deeply before depressing the canister to deliver the spray
Which of the following best describes an appropriate shock sequence for the patient in pulseless VT?
Shock 2 minutes of CPR analyze shock again
Which of the following signs of inadequate breathing is more prominent in children than in adults?
All of the above
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