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American History Test #2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (109)
Which speaker states a policy most similar to the foreign policy advice given by President George Washington in his Farewell Address?
Speaker A: Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.
When John Marshall was Chief Justice, United States Supreme Court decisions tended to strengthen the power of
the National Government
Alexander Hamilton's argument that the government has the power to create a National Bank is based on which part of the Constitution?
the elastic clause
"All communities divide themselves into the few and the many. The first are the rich and well born, the other the mass of the people. . . . The people are turbulent and changing. . . . Give therefore to the first class a distinct permanent share in the government. They will check the unsteadiness of the second."
the common people cannot be trusted to run a stable government
Actions and policies of the Government under President George Washington generally resulted in the
strengthening of the Federal Government
Which speaker best describes the basic foreign policy of the United States until the late 1800's?
Speaker D:"Involvement in European affairs would be a mistake. We should not jeopardize our peace and prosperity over issues that Europe's ambitions and rivalries control."
"Our true policy is to steer clear of permanent alliances . . . ."
President Washington made this statement to warn against United States involvement in
European military conflicts
The significance of the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison is that the decision
established the power of judicial review
Alexander Hamilton urged Congress to pass a protective tariff to encourage the growth of
What was the result of many of the Supreme Court decisions made under Chief Justice John Marshall between 1801 and 1835?
The federal government was strengthened.
"It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. . . ." — Marbury v. Madison, 1803 This statement expresses the Supreme Court's claim that
the power of judicial review belongs to the courts
Alexander Hamilton's financial plan helped to establish the credit of the United States government by
providing for the payment of the nation's debts
One factor that led to the formation of the first two political parties in the United States in the 1790s was the conflict over the
distribution of power between the federal and state governments
One major reason that Alexander Hamilton proposed a national bank was to
improve the economic position of the United States government
A major reason the Antifederalists opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution was because the Constitution
changed the balance of power between the state and national governments
President George Washington pursued a foreign policy of neutrality during his administration primarily because he believed that
the United States needed time to gain economic and military strength
In the Colonial Era, developments such as the New England town meetings and the establishment of the Virginia House of Burgesses represented
steps in the growth of representative democracy
According to the Declaration of Independence, the people have the right to alter or abolish a government if that government
violates natural rights
Which fundamental political idea is expressed in the Declaration of Independence?
If the government denies its people certain basic rights, that government can be overthrown.
"The only representatives of the people of these colonies are persons chosen therein by themselves; and that no taxes ever have been, or can be constitutionally imposed on them but by their respective legislatures."
-Statement by the Stamp Act Congress, 1765
What is a valid conclusion that can be drawn from this quotation?
Only the colonists' elected representatives should have the power to levy taxes.
The Mayflower Compact is important to the concept of a democratic society because it represents
a clear step toward self-government
The British system of mercantilism was opposed by many American colonists because it
placed restrictions on trading
The Mayflower Compact, House of Burgesses, and Fundamental Orders of Connecticut are all examples of the efforts of colonial Americans to
use democratic practices in government
The Mayflower Compact of 1620 is considered an important step in the development of democracy in America because it
expressed the importance of self-government
During the Revolutionary War period, Thomas Paine's Common Sense was important because it
convinced many Americans who had been undecided to support independence
The Virginia House of Burgesses was important to the development of democracy in the thirteen colonies because it
provided an example of a representative form of government
The pamphlet Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, aided the American cause in the Revolutionary War because it
persuaded individuals who were undecided to support independence
A major argument for American independence found in the Declaration of Independence was that the British
deprived Americans of their natural rights
One of the principles stated in the Declaration of Independence is that government should
be based upon the consent of the governed
During the colonial period, the British Parliament used the policy of mercantilism to
limit manufacturing in America
The British benefited from their mercantilist relationship with the American colonies primarily by
buying raw materials from the colonies and selling them finished products
The main reason Great Britain established the Proclamation Line of 1763 was to
avoid conflicts between American colonists and Native American Indians
The Declaration of Independence (1776) has had a major influence on peoples throughout the world because it
provides justification for revolting against unjust governments
In the 1780's, many Americans distrusted a strong central government. This distrust is best shown by the
plan of government set up by the Articles of Confederation
"We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; . . ."
This quotation is evidence that some of the basic ideas in the Declaration of Independence were
reflections of the philosophies of the European Enlightenment.
The authors of the United States Constitution believed that the voice of the people should be heard frequently. Which part of the Government was instituted to respond most directly to the will of the people?
House of Representatives
Which quotation from the United States Constitution provides for a Federal system of government?
"The powers not delegated to the United States . . . are reserved to the states . . ."
The system of checks and balances is best illustrated by the power of
the President to veto a bill passed by Congress
Adherence to a strict interpretation of the Constitution would have prevented President Thomas Jefferson from
making the Louisiana Purchase
Which phrase from the Declaration of Independence most clearly reflects the idea that the people are the source of government?
". . . deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. . ."
One way in which the United States Constitution differed from the Articles of Confederation was that the Constitution
created a national government having three branches
At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, delegates from the small states most strongly supported the idea of
equal representation for the states in the national legislature
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
This quotation reflects beliefs mainly derived from
John Locke's theory of natural rights
Antifederalists criticized the United States Constitution primarily because governing power was concentrated in the
The _________ signed in 1215, limited the power of the English monarch
During the _________, European philosophers came to believe that all problem could be solved by human reason
The ________ provided a plan for self-government in Plymoth
_________ led the Patriots during the American Revolution
Evangelical preachers toured the colonies promoting revivals during a religious movement called the _______
The Great Awakening
_______________ drafted the Declaration of Independence
_________ first established colonies in both South and North America
Missionaries came to the Americas to _________
convert Native Americans to Christianity
The English established their first successful colony at ________
The British Parliament needed colonists to pay new taxes to
pay Britain's debt from the French and Indian War
_________ shut down courts in rural Massachusetts to prevent farm foreclosures
Most state constitutions included a ____________________ guaranteing certain freedoms
Bill of Rights
The Constitution included __________________________ to prevent one branch of government from becoming more powerful than the other branches
Checks and Balances
For the Constitution to go into effect, nine out of thirteen states had to _______ it
____________ designed the Virginia Plan
Under _____________, the state and nation share power
The Articles of Confederation
reserved most powers for the States
The Great Compromise appeased southern states by
counting each slave as three-fifths a person
Federalist supported ratification of the Constitution because they wanted a
strong federal government
Powers shared by the federal and state governments are called
The _________________ made it a crime to publicly discredit the federal government
The Supreme Court's power to decide the constitutionality of a federal law is known as ________
The _________ authorized the President to deport immigrants who critisized the federal government
The ______________ nearly doubled the size of the United States
Thomas Jefferson's _________ hurt the American economy
Jay's treaty angered many Americans because it allowed Britain to continue its practice of ________
Alexander Hamilton believed that the national bank would
promote the general welfare
Which of the following expanded the power of the Supreme Court?
During the War of 1812,
British troops burned the capitol and the White House
The Industrial Revolution entailed a
surge in the building of factories to produce textiles and other goods
the man who drafted the Declaration of Independence
the practice of taking sailors and forcing them to serve in the navy
a religious movement that took place during the 1740s
the Great Awakening
the suspension of trade
a form of government in which power is divide among the states and nation
a law making body with elected members that helped govern the Virginia Colony
House of Burgesses
a statement meant to keep Europe out of American affairs
a Spanish invader who explored and conquered parts of the Americas
the delegate that designed the Virginia Plan and became known as the "Father of the Constitution"
a system in which the federal government is organized into more than one branch
separation of powers
Colonies each wrote a constitution that created republics. What are republics?
Republics are governments in which officials are representatives elected by the people
Who could vote?
only white male property owners
What changes occurred when the Articles of Confederation was adopted?
system for -Most power went to the states
-The federal government was only granted limited powers
-Congress has the power to declare and conduct war and could regulate trade with foreign countries and with Indian nations
-Each state set its own trade policy
-Each state taxed good imported from other states
-The National government had no say in interstate commerce and could not levy taxes
-each state had one vote
-2/3 (9) states had to approve for war
What was the Land Ordinance?
system for surveying and selling land to settlers
What was the Northwest Ordinance?
described how territories should be governed and how they could become full fledged states. It banned slavery in the territory and provided for public education
What was the New Jersey Plan?
the US would stay a loose confederation, rather than become a unified nation
What was the Virginia Plan?
national union that is strong and republican
What was the Great Compromise
settled the difference between the Virginia and New Jersey plans by creating a bicameral legislature
Who are the Federalist?
supporters of the Constitution
Who are the Anti-Federalists?
opponents of proposed constitution
-Bill of Rights!
people are the main source of government authority
the government has only the power given from the constitution
constitution protects citizens; individual rights
Jay's treaty of 1794
British gave up forts
treaty by Thomas Pickney with Spanish which permitted Americans to export their produce through the new Orleans
War of 1812
war with British empire
Writs of Assitstance
The Declaratory Act
stated that the Parliament had complete control over the governing of colonies
_____________ persuaded the House of Commons for an import tax on glass, paper, lead, and teae
______________ wrote the Massachusetts circular letter in 1768
The Boston Massare
a mob of 60 angry people approached British guards at the Custom House in Boston
-the British killed 5 men, including a slave, Crispus Attucks
The Boston Tea Party
-Governor Thomas Hutchinson allowed 3 ships carrying tea enter Boston Harbor
-Radicals tossed 342 chests of tea into the water
-Culprits dressed as Native Americans
-$750,000 in damage
The Coercive Acts = The Intolerable Acts
-Boston Port Act
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