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All material learned from September to January!

What macro-molecule does iodine indicate, and what color does it turn it?

Starch ; black

What macro-molecule does Benedicts Solution indicate, and what color does it turn it?

Glucose ; Orange

What macro-molecule does Biurat indicate? What color does it turn it?

Protein ; Purple

Function: Ribosomes

Make proteins

Function: Mitochondria

Make ATP (energy)

Function: Golgi Body

Finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins

Function: Endoplasmic Reticulum

-Helps complete the proteins after ribosomes build them (rough ER)
-Makes membranes (smooth ER)

Function: Nucleus

-Protects DNA
-Control center of cell
-Instructions for building proteins

Function: Lysosomes

-Digest food
-Make energy
-Clean up/recycle old & broken organelles

Function: Cell Membrane

-Separates cell from outside
-Controls what enters/leaves the cell

What is the structure of the Cell Membrane?

Double layer of fat, AKA phospholipid bilayer

Function: Centrioles

-Help coordinate cell division

What organelle is only found in an animal cell?


How do ribosomes and the golgi apparatus work together?

Ribosomes make the proteins --> Golgi Bodies package & send them out.

How do ribosomes and mitochondria work together?

Ribosomes make the proteins --> Mitochondria uses proteins to make energy

How do ribosomes and the nucleus work together?

Ribosomes read the information sent from the nucleus to make the specific proteins that the cell needs.

Equilibrium means...

The concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution.

Facilitated diffusion...

Movement of specific molecules across all membranes through protein channels.

Active transport...

-Needs Energy
- LOW to HIGH concentration
-Protein pump


Water enters cell.


-Moving INTO cell through ACTIVE TRANSPORT
-Phagocytosis & Pinocytosis


Cells that engulf other things.


Process of things moving OUT of the cell through ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Passive Transport includes...

-Osmosis (WATER)
-Diffusion (facilitated & simple)
-HIGH to LOW concentration

An organic molecule includes what?


An inorganic molecule does NOT have...


What is the molecular formula for glucose?

C6 H12 O6

Dehydration Synthesis...

The joining of molecules by removing a water molecule.

Fuction: Carbohydrates

-Structure (cell wall in plants)

Building blocks of carbohydrates? EXAMPLES?

SUGARS ; Chitin, glycogen, starch, cellulose

Function: Lipids

-Energy Storage
-Insulates body
-Cushions organs
-Cell membrane

Building blocks of lipids? EXAMPLES?

GLYCEROL & FATTY ACIDS ; fats, oils, waxes, hormones.

Saturated Fats =

-Solid @ room temperature

Function: Proteins

-Movement (muscle)
-Immune System

Building blocks of proteins? EXAMPLES?

AMINO ACIDS ; muscle, skin, hair, fingernails, pepsin

Hydrophobic amino acids...

-Tries to stay away from water in cell

Hydrophilic amino acids...

-Tries to stay in water in cell

Unfolding proteins =

Denaturing Proteins

What factors affect the denaturing of proteins?


Building blocks of Nucleic Acids?



Whatever the enzyme is working on.

Active site...

Area on enzyme where the substrate fits.


A protein that speeds up chemical reactions.

Another word for Biological Catalyst...


Enzyme-Substrate Complex =

Where enzyme & substrate are joined together.

Enzymes are named for...

what they work on & end in -ASE. (Lactase --> lactose)

The SHAPE of an enzyme determines its...


Lock & Key theory...

Substrate has an EXACT shape that fits into the active site for a specific enzyme.

Induced Fit...

Enzyme's active site changes slightly to fit substrate.

Reactants are...

what go INTO a reaction. (glu + gal)

Products are...

The end result of a reaction. (lactose)

Exothermic reaction...


Endothermic reaction...


Activation energy =

Energy needed to START a chemical reaction!

Enzymes ______ the activation energy.


Water absorption takes place in the...

Large intestine.

Absorption of digestive and products into bloodstream in the...

Small intestine.

What substances are released into the small intestine and aid in the digestion of the intestinal contents?

Bile, pancreatic juice, & intestinal juice.

What is the major disadvantage of having a small intestine the same shape as the stomach?

Absorptive surface area is decreased.

Chemical digestion of protein begins in the...


Chemical digestion of carbs begins in the

Oral Cavity (mouth)

Which digestive organ stores glycogen?


What does the gallbladder do?

Emulsifies fats by using bile.

Synthesis =

"Put together"
"The Making"

What causes a heart murmur?

-Leaking of valve causes a hissing sound.
-Blood squirts backward through valve.

Oxygen POOR blood path:

Superior Vena Cavas --> Right Atrium --> Right Ventricle --> Pulmonary Artery

Oxygen RICH blood path:

Pulmonary Vein --> Left Atrium --> Left Ventricle --> Out the Aorta & out to the body

Which digestive organs digest proteins?

Stomach, Pancreas & Small Intestine.

Which digestive organs digest Carbohydrates?

Mouth, Pancreas, Small Intestine.

Which digestive organs digest Lipids?

Liver, Pancreas, Small Intestine.

Function: Salivary Glands

Amylase in saliva --> breaks down starches

Function: Stomach

Produces gastric juice, pepsin, rennin, HCI

Function: Pancreas

Produces digestive enzymes.

Function: Appendix


Function: Rectum

Holds undigested food until elimination.

Function: Liver

Stores glycogen, produces bile

Function: Gallbladder


A person with blood type A has what antibodies in their plasma?

Anti - B

A person with blood type B has what antibodies in their plasma?

anti - A

A person with blood type AB has what antibodies in their plasma?


A person with blood type O has what antibodies in their plasma?

anti - A & anti -B

A person with blood type A can receive blood from...

Type A & Type O

A person with blood type A can donate to...

Type A & Type AB

A person with blood type B can receive blood from...

Type B & Type O

A person with blood type B can donate to...

Type B & Type AB

A person with blood type AB can receive blood from...


A person with blood type AB can donate blood to...

Type AB

A person with blood type O can receieve blood from...

Type O

A person with blood type O can donate to...


What does an antigen do?

Triggers an immune response.

What does an antibody do?

Produced by the white cells that fights against antigens.

Genotype =

A person's genetic make-up OR types of genes that they have. (ex: BB, Bb)

Phenotype =

What we see as the result of the genotype. (BB = Brown Eyes)

Convert .5mm to macrometers:

500 macrometers

Independent Variable:

What you're CHANGING in an experiment.

Dependent Variable:

What you're MEASURING in an experiment.

Write a hypothesis for the following: The effect of pH on early growth of bean plants in the laboratory.

If you water a bean plant with high pH acid rain, then the plants will grow shorter because there is a lot of acid in the water, which is not good for the growth of plants.

Put in chronological order from smallest to largest: Organs, Tissues, Organ Systems, Cells, Organelles.

Organelles - Cells - Tissues - Organs - Organ Systems

Cell theory:

1) All living things made up of cells.
2) Cells are the basic unit of life.
3) All life comes from pre-existing cells.

Mom has type A blood
Dad has type AB blood
What is the genotype? What is the phenotype?

PHENOTYPES: Type A, Type B, Type AB

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