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Origin: Trapezius

Occiput, Ligamentum nuchae & spinous processes of C7-T12

Insertion: Trapezius

Lateral one-third of clavicle, acromion & spine of the scapula

Action: Trapezius

Upper: unilaterally: elevate the scapula (& upwardly rotate), laterally flex head & neck to same side & rotates to opposite side; bilaterally: extend head & neck. Middle: adduct the scapula. Lower: depress the scapula (and upwardly rotates)

Origin: Latissimus dorsi

Spinous processes of last 6 thoracic vertebrae, last 3-4 ribs, thoracolumbar aponeurosis & posterior iliac crest

Insertion: Latissimus dorsi

Crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus

Action: Latissimus dorsi

Extension, medial rotation and adduction of the shoulder joint (humerus)

Origin: Levator scapula

Transverse processes of C 1-4

Insertion: Levator scapula

Upper region of medial border and superior angle of scapula

Action: Levator scapula

Elevate the scapula (and downwardly rotates)

Origin: Rhomboid Major

Spinous processes of T2-T5

Insertion: Rhomboid Major

Medial border of scapula, between the spine & inferior angle

Origin: Rhomboid Minor

Spinous processes of C7-T1

Insertion: Rhomboid Minor

Upper portion of medial border of scapula, across from spine

Action: Rhomboid Major and Minor

Adduct the scapula (and downwardly rotates)

Origin: Spinalis, Longissimus, Iliocostalis

Sacrum, iliac crest, thoracolumbar aponeurosis.

Insertion: Spinalis

Thoracic spinous processes up to C2

Insertion: Longissimus

Ribs, transverse processes up to the mastoid process.

Insertion: Iliocostalis

Ribs to cervical transverse processes.

Action: Spinalis, Longissimus, Iliocostalis

Unilaterally: lateral flexion of the spine to the same side; Bilaterally: extension of the spine

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