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Formal Region

A region where one thing is the same everywhere within the boundary (shares one common characteristic)

Functional Region

A region focused on its central place (focal point)

Vernacular Region

A region that is part of their culutral identity

Expansion Diffusion

A pattern that originates in a central place then expands outwards in all directions

Hierarchical Diffusion

The pattern originates in a first order location then moves down to second order locations

Relocation Diffusion

The pattern begins at a point od origin and then crosses a significant physical barrier

Contagious Diffusion

The pattern begins at a point of origin and then moves outward to nearby locations

Stimulus Diffusion

A general idea diffuses and then stimulates the creation of new ideas

Stage 1

High birth and death rates low life expectancy low RNI

Stage 2

High birth rates decreasing death rates increasing life expectancy Highest RNI

Stage 3

Lowering birth rates low death rates higher life expectancy lowering RNI

Stage 4

Low birth and death rates highest life expectancy low or negative RNI

International Migration

When a group or a single person migrates out of their orignial country

Internal Migration

When a group or a single person migrates within the same country

What makes up a cultural landscape?

Artifacts, mentifacts, and sociofacts

What are the 4 major branches of the Indo-European family?

Germanic, Indo-Iranian, Romantic, and Balto-Slavic


The geographic boundry of a linguistic feature














own language

Ravenstine's laws

1. most migrants go short distances 2. people who migrate long distances tend to go to urban areas


Distributed all over the world, 2.1 billion people practice it, universal, one god, believers= eternal life


Notheast India, about 400 million, universal, living things endure suffering, suffering leads to reincarnation


China, southeast asia, 400 million, universal and ethnic, Dao means the way, live a balanced and virtuos life


Africa, Asia, 8 million, universal, one god, all gods preach from the same god, the whole world is a family


South Korea, Austrailia, Germany, Japan, China, 6 million, Ethnic, treat others with respect, learn from past, mistakes aren't sins


India, Nepal, I billion, Ethnic, has millions of gods and goddesses, release from rebirth


U.S. Asia, Europe, Latin America, Ethnic, one god, 10 comandments, god's chosen people to believe in him


Saudi Arabia, Middle East of Africa and Asia, 3.1 billion, one god, give to charity, pray 5x a day, universal


Japan, 3 million, parts of buddhism, follows code of cofucianism, scared spirts take forms, ethnic


India, 23 million, universal, one god, all humans=equal, reincarted until found peace with god


not rooted in on specific culture or location
attempt to appeal to all people
can be taught and rejected
salvation is indvidual, not communal
often have a specific founder or event that religion is based on


You are born into it
appeals to a specific group in a specific place
It closely ties to specific places and historical events
Most don't seek converters
Group salvation
Don't necessarily have a particular founder


Material or physical things that relfect culture


The way in which a culture orginizes itself


The ideas, values, beliefs of a culture

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