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aerobic exercise

regular rhythmic physical exercise that raises the heart rate to a training level and keeps it there for a period of time, preferably at least 20 to 30 min daily.

alarm reaction

first stage of stress in which the body prepares for a fight or flight response by activating the endocrine system.

applicants who can be polygraphed

job applicants who can be required to take a polygraph include guards for certain types of security firms and workers who manufacture or distribute controlled substances and have direct access to these controlled substances.


the use of electronic monitoring equipment to measure internal body functions of which individuals are normally unaware, such as blood pressure and muscle tension. Being able to observe these functions helps individuals to control them.

biometric access devices

security devices that allow access to people based on biological factors, such as their fingerprints, the iris or retina of their eye, or there voice.

bloodborne pathogen

a microorganism in the blood system that can cause disease in humans, such as the hepatitis B virus and the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS.


inability to handle continued stress on the job and the feelings of psychological exhaustion.


closed circuit television; a system of cameras and monitors that allow a security officer to observe the monitors in one location and know what is happening in many sensitive areas.

computer virus

hidden computer programs that unknowingly attach to other programs and files and often destroy or corrupt them.

conditions necessary for administering a polygraph exam

1)the test is part of an ongoing investigation of losses suffered by the employer. 2) the tested employee had access to the property in question. 3) employer had reasonable suspicion of the employee's involvement. 4) employer provides a statement explaining the basis for suspecting the above conditions.

consumer report

report that may contain information regarding an individual's credit standing, character, reputation, personal characteristics, and mode of living.


exclusive right or privilege of authors or proprietors to print or otherwise multiply, distribute, and sell copies of their literary, artistic, or intellectual creations.

de minimus violations

no direct or immediate relationship to job safety or health.

direct threat

disease or physical condition that poses a significant risk of substantial harm to the health or safety of the individual or others, such as a highly contagious disease among job holders who work in food preparation. The ADA does not protect people who pose a direct threat unless reasonable accomodations can be made to reduce the threat.


unpleasant or disease-producing stress that is destructive to physical and mental well-being.


employee assistance program

employee assistance program

program usually operated by the human resource department with the help of social service agencies in the community that is designed to help employees with their personal problems, particularly alcoholism, drug abuse, financial indebtedness, and marital conflict.

employee wellness program

program aimed at helping employees stay healthy by encouraging them to obtain the proper rest, exercise, and nutrition, and to avoid smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse.


study of diseases in the environment and of conditions that may cause wide-spread health problems.


application of technology and engineering to human abilities, interests, and feelings. sometimes called biotechnology.


pleasant or curative stress that contributes to interest, enthusiasm, and a zest for living.

fetal protection policy

refusing to hire or insisting on transferring a pregnant or fertile woman who would be unavoidably exposed to substances creating a reproductive hazard. this type of policy is a form of sex discrimination in spite of the risks.


system of computer components between two networks that checks and controls the transfer of information between the networks.

fraud determinants

3 categories of variables the influence when fraud will likely occur: intense situational pressures, convenient opportunities, and low moral character or honesty.


federal sentencing guidelines for organizations act 1991

Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organizations Act 1991

makes companies criminally responsible for internal fraud, and in extreme cases could force the dissolution of a company. penalties can be reduced by effective anti-fraud programs.

general duty clause

general standard of the occupational safety and health act requiring each employer to furnish a place of employment that is free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.

hazard communication standard

OSHA standard that requires employers to notify employees when hazardous chemicals are present in the workplace and to train employees to work with them safely.

imminent danger

any condition where a high probability exists that an accident may occur that will result in death or serious physical harm.

incidence rate

N/EH x 200,000 , N = number of injuries, illness or lost workdays, EH = total hrs worked by all employees during the calendar yr 200,000 = 100 employees x 50 wks x 40 hrs

intermittent explosive disorders

an explosive outburst of angry emotion when a person is out of control and likely to injure someone or damage something

internal financial procedures limits

limits on the dollar amts that various employees are allowed to spend without further authorizations.

inventory shrinkage

the amt of inventory stores actually have relative to what they should have based on how much merchandise they have bought and what has been sold. inventory shrinkage measures a store's losses - mostly through employee theft.

investigative consumer report

an extensive report that includes information on an individual's character, general reputation, personal characteristics, and mode of living.


material safety data sheet. must be maintained by employers for each hazardous chemical that is used, processed, or stored.

musculoskeletal disorder

injuries and disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendinitis, and sciatica, that are caused from overexertion and repetitive motion.

neurological disorders

chemical imbalances that influence a person's neurological functioning and may contribute to a loss of emotional control and violence.

no-adverse-effect level

the highest dose of a material or exposures to it that causes no ill effects.

non-serious violations

direct relationship to safety or health, but unlikely to cause serious physical harm

obsessive disorders

disorder that occurs when people allow their romantic fantasies to go unchecked and become irrational desires. this condition may become violent when the person is rejected.


occupational safety and health administration


federal agency that enforces the occupational safety and health act of 1970


an irrational fear held by people who think others are out to harm or destroy them.


legal document obtained from the office of patents and trademarks that protects the inventions and ideas of an inventor for a period of 17 years.

proprietary information

private information developed and owned exclusively by an organization or individual

recordable cases

cases in which there was an occupational injury or illness, including death, but not including first-aid cases consisting of one-time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, bumps, or splinters.

relaxation techniques

techniques that use relaxation to reverse the alarm reaction and avoid stress, such as abdominal breathing, transcendental meditation, and biofeedback.

repeated violations

repeated willful violations of a similar nature.

serious violation

substantial probability of death or serious physical harm and employer knew or should have known of the hazard.

signal detection theory

theory that explains the likelihood that a security officer will detect a problem based on two factors: the detectability of the problem relative to background noise and the expectancy of an occurrence.

strategic partnership programs

voluntary long-term agreements forming cooperative relationships btwn OSHA and groups of employers, employees, union reps, and other stakeholders to improve safety by eliminating serious hazards and creating safe working procedures.


physiological response of the body to a stressor. the initial stage is the alarm reaction, which readies the body to make an immediate response. the second stage attempts to return the body to a state of balance. the third stage, exhaustion, occurs when the body experiences repeated alarm reactions.


use of force or violence against persons or property for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom.

toxicity threshold

lowest dose level at which toxic effects can be demonstrated.


study of poisonous materials and the exposure thresholds of each.


a word, phrase, symbol, or design that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods or services of one party from those of others.

voluntary protection programs

programs where mgmt, labor, and OSHA establish cooperative relationships at a workplace. mgmt agrees to meet an established set of criteria, and the employees agree to cooperate with management to assure a safe and healthful workplace. OSHA removes the company from its list of scheduled inspections.

vulnerability analysis

analysis of level of risk and frequency of losses to determine how secure a company's assets are and the potential threats to these assets.

which occupational injuries must be reported to OSHA?

occupational injury must be reported to OSHA if it results in death, one or more lost workdays, restriction of work or motion, loss of consciousness, transfer to another job, or medical treatment other than first aid.

who is not covered by OSHA?

self employed persons, family farms where only family members work, workplaces already covered by other federal statutes, and state and local government.

willful violations

intentional disregard for a specific OSHA standard or the general duty clause.

workers' compensation

provides income continuation and reimbursement of accident expenses for employees who are injured on the job regardless of who was responsible for the accident.

workplace violence

any act taken by an employee that undermines the purpose for which an enterprise exists, including graffiti scrawling, harassment, and practical jokes, as well as violent homicides.


American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations.

AFL-CIO (definition)

powerful federation of labor that represents about 80 percent of all unionized workers.

agency shop

a union security provision requiring both union members and nonmembers to pay dues to the union.

ally doctrine

an exception to the secondary boycott rule. when a neutral employer performs the work that was performed by the striking employee, it becomes an "ally" and may be subject to lawful picketing.

alternative dispute resolution

methods of resolving disagreements without litigation, including negotiation, mediation, binding arbitration, and rent-a-judge services.


the process of submitting a labor dispute to a third party for resolution. the third party is called an arbitrator. both parties agree beforehand to accept the arbitrator's decision.

authorization cards

signed statements by workers calling for a union to represent them.

bargaining unit

a group of workers that form an appropriate unit for collecting bargaining.

bargaining zone

the range of feasible alternatives on each bargaining issue that both management and union are willing to consider during negotiations.

bilateral decision making

decision-making process that uses two-party bargaining to reach agreement.

binding arbitration

means for overcoming a bargaining impasse by referring the labor dispute to an outside party with agreement beforehand that both sides will accept the arbitrator's decision.

blocking charge rule

an NLRB election is barred because an unfair labor practice charge affecting the proposed bargaining unit is pending.

business representative

a full-time union employee who supervises the local union headquarters and helps to administer the union contract.

certification strike

an illegal strike that is called by a group to protest the results of a certification election and to force the employer to recognize a union other than the union that won certification.

certification bar

an NLRB election is barred because the initial year following certification of the union has not elapsed.

closed shop

a union security provision that an employer hire only union members. closed shops are illegal except in the construction industry.

coalition bargaining

when more than one employer negotiates with a single union.

collective bargaining

process of negotiations between an employer and a union regarding wages and working conditions.

common situs picketing

when employees strike an employer that shares its premises with another employer, the union's picket signs must clearly indicate which employer they are striking.

company union

a union organized and dominated by the company. these were ruled illegal by the National Labor Relations Act.

compelled self-defamation

er's can be sued for giving inaccurate and derogatory reasons for terminating ee's even though the er never tells anyone but the ee. when ee applies for a new job and is asked to explain reason for leaving, ee is required to provide explanation that can e considered compelled self-defamation.

complaint system

a nonunion company grievance procedure designed to hear and respond to employees' complaints.

compressed workweek

an alternative work schedule in which ee's work fewer days per week by working more hours on days they work. most typical compressed work-week schedule is four 10 hour days, called the 4/40 plan.

concession bargaining

negotiations that result in wage reductions or work rule "give backs"


an informal process of agreement used by the National Labor Relations Board or the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service to resolve industrial disputes.

consent election

when an employer, upon learning that the employees have petitioned for a representation election, consents to an election and agrees to a date.

constructive discharge

a decision constructed by a court that an employee who quit was actually discharged because of intolerable working conditions.

consumer picketing

a union-initiated public boycott of an employer's goods or services.

contract bar

an NLRB election is barred because a valid union contract already exists.

core period

the period of time when employees on flexible work hours must be at work.

craft union

a union comprised of members who work in the same craft, such as carpenters or electricians.

decertification election

an election held by the NLRB to determine whether the majority of employees wish to decertify a union.


making slanderous or libelous statements about a person that harms the person's reputation or professional credibility.

directed election

a representation election that is directed by the regional director of the NLRB after determining that employees' petition for an election meets the necessary criteria.

distributive bargaining

a bargaining strategy in which each party tries to maximize its own outcomes at the expense of the other party.

double breasting

when a firm has two separate operations, one union and one nonunion.

due process

disciplinary actions follow an accepted procedure that protects an employee from arbitrary, capricious, and unfair treatment.

dues check-off

a provision that allows union dues to be paid directly to the union by the company's payroll office if a member signs an affidavit agreeing to a payroll deduction.

election bar

an NLRB election is barred because a valid election was held during the preceding twelve months.

employment-at-will doctrine

the practice that allows employers to hire whomever they want for as long as they want; either party may terminate the employment relationship at any time.


the application of technology and engineering to human abilities, interests, and feelings. sometimes called biotechnology, it considers the mutual adjustment of people and machines in improving organizational effectiveness.


the practice of requiring employers to hire extra workers who are not wanted or needed. although featherbedding provisions in a labor agreement are illegal, the courts have said that the collective bargaining process - not the courts - should decide which jobs are necessary.


an alternative work schedule that allows employees to set their own work hours subject to specific constraints, such as requiring them to work a specific number of hours per day or per week and to be at work during a core period.

fraudulent misrepresentation

when an employer intentionally misrepresents the truth, thereby causing severe damage for an employee.

good-faith bargaining

the requirement that both parties meet and make offers and counter proposals in an effort to reach an agreement.


a work-related complaint or formal dispute that is brought to the attention of management.

horizontal loading

combining tasks to eliminate highly specialized jobs and to make larger work modules.

hot cargo clauses

an agreement that requires an employer to cease doing business with a nonunion company. these agreements are illegal.

implied contract

an oral or written promise by an employer to continue the employment relationship either indefinitely or for a designated time.

indirect sexual harassment

when 2 people are romantically involved and one partner receives preferential treatment, then other members of the work group who did not get promoted can claim that they were the victims of unlawful sex discrimination.

industrial union

a union comprised of members who work for the same company or industry regardless of their particular crafts.


a court order prohibiting a person or group from carrying out a given action, such as a strike or boycott, that would cause irreparable damage.


when an employee refuses to follow a supervisor's instructions.

integrative bargaining

a bargaining strategy in which both parties work together cooperatively to achieve the best outcome for both.

interest arbitration

a method of settling a collective bargaining dispute where an impartial arbitrator renders a decision that is binding on both the employer and the union.

involuntary absenteeism and turnover

when employees miss work or are terminated for reasons beyond their control.

job enlargement

making a job larger by adding more of the same kinds of elements.

job enrichment

changing a job to make it significantly different in terms of the amount of variety, autonomy, and responsibility for the job. it involves a significant change in the content of the job, rather than just making it more of the same.

job sharing

a work arrangement whereby two workers split one job. each worker is responsible for his or her share of the job. they split the salary, the benefits, and the responsibilities.

job specialization

simplifying a job by reducing the number of elements or activities performed by a job holder. it normally involves more repetitive activities with short work cycles.

jurisdictional strike

an illegal strike resulting from a dispute between two unions about which union has jurisdiction over certain jobs.

just cause

disciplinary action should only be taken for good and sufficient reason.


the employer closes the doors of the company and refuses to allow the employees to continue working.

maintenance of membership

a provision that required that employers who join a union voluntarily must continue paying their membership dues until the present contract expires.

management prerogatives

areas of managerial responsibility for which employers claim the power to make unilateral decisions.

mass picketing

a large number of individuals parading in front of a company to advertise their labor dispute.


intervention by a third party into a labor dispute to reduce conflict and help both sides compromise to reach agreement.


the practice of training workers to perform a variety of tasks.

national emergency strike

a strike that in the judgement of the President of the United States would "imperil the national health and safety." In such cases the President may request a court injunction to restrain the strike.

negligent hiring

a legal theory that makes employers liable for the abusive acts of employees if the employer knew or should have known about the employees' propensity for such conduct.


national labor relations board

National Labor Relations Board

established by Congress through the Wagner Act to protect the rights of employees, employers, unions, and the general public. Conducts representation elections and resolves unfair labor practices.

noncompete agreement

agreement that restrict employees from competing with the employer following termination of employment.

Norris-La Guardia Act

Federal Anti-Injunction Act. A law passed in 1932 to encourage the formation of labor unions by neutralizing the differential power between employees and employers.


an impartial person designated by an organization to hear complaints from members who feel powerless and unable to obtain a fair hearing on their own.

open-door policy

a policy that allows all employees, regardless of their positions, the right to discuss a complaint with top corporate officers without being forced to go through a chain of command.

permanent part-time

a work arrangement permitting employees to work less that 35 hours per week. this arrangement is considered a permanent rather than a temporary part-time job.

prior petition bar

an NLRB election is barred because a prior election petition was withdrawn by the requesting party within the past 6 mos.

progressive discipline

a system of discipline where the disciplinary actions become increasingly severe.

promissory estoppel

an exception to the employment-at-will doctrine that occurs when an employer makes a promise on which the employer reasonably expects the employee to rely, the employee does rely on it, and, as a result, the employee is injured financially or professionally.

qualified privilege doctrine

allows past employers to share relevant job-related personal information about an applicant with future employers.

quality circle

an organizational improvement strategy that involves work groups meeting periodically, usually one hour per week, to discuss ways to improve productivity.

representation election

an election that is held to determine whether the workers want to be represented by a union.

retributive justice

fair punishment that fits the seriousness of the misbehavior.

right to work

a provision granted by Section 14(b) of the Taft Hartley Act that allows states to forbid union shops, thus making union membership an optional rather than a mandatory requirement to hold a job.


when a union tries to get union members hired at non-union firms in an effort to organizing the other employees.

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