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Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

Chapter 9
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Hagia Sophia
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Greek fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Bulgaria
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014
Cyril
Along with Methodius, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Methodius
Along with Cyril, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Kiev
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century.
Rurik
Legendary Scandinavian regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 C.E.
Vladimir I
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015; converted kingdom to Christianity.
Russian Orthodox
Church that developed under Vladimir I whose priests were trained from church leaders imported from Byzantium. This king characteristically ruled over the church as well as many major appointments, shows east west divide.
Yaroslav
Vladimir's son became a Grand Prince in A.D. 1019. Under his rule, Kievan culture reached its peak. First library established and legal system organized.
Tatars
Mongols who captured Russian cities and destroyed the Kievan state in 1236. However, they left the Russian Orthodox church and aristocracy intact.