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KIN 321 chapter 7
Terms in this set (50)
The Nature of Sport Groups
a collection of two or more individuals who posses a common identity have common goals and objectives share common fate
development of the sense of "we" and not "I"
A dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs (Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 1998)
dynamic can change
instrumental group was made for a purpose
affective member social interaction produce feelings in group
: The degree to which group members work together to achieve common goals and objectives
Ex. Winning a championship
The interpersonal attractions among group members
Ex. Adhering to an exercise class because of enjoying being around friends
enhanced fitness as this increases the social cohesion will increase
Groups are dynamic no static they exhibit life and vitality interaction and activity
is a "dynamic process which is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs
two different categories
individual attractions to the group
represents each individual's perceptions about the closeness, similarity, and bonding within the group as a total unit set or collection "we" or "us" evaluations
each group member's perceptions about the closeness, similarity, and bonding with the group as a total unit.
benefits from group
Attractiveness toward the group:
each group member's personal attractions to the group and a desire to be involved in group activities.
individual attractions to the group
represents each individual's personal attractions to the group, and more specifically what personal motivations act to retain an individual in the group. "me" or "I"
Cohesion in Sport teams
The normative forces holding a group together.
Ex. Players under contract to management, athletes holding scholarships, geographical restrictions placed on HS athletes, exercisers paying an extra fee for class
Close proximity leads to increased opportunities for interaction and communication
Distinctiveness helps to emphasize differences from "everyone else".
Size may affect cohesion. Smaller groups are often more cohesive than larger groups
scholarships, family wants you to play, extra fee, contract.
smaller groups are more cohesive than larger groups
individuals who are physically close to each other, have a greater tendency to bond together.
as a set of individuals becomes more separate, more distinctive from others, feelings of oneness and unity increase. achieved through team uniforms and mottos by providing special privileges or by demanding special sacrifices.
Size associated with development of cohesiveness
an inverted-U relationship between social cohesion and team size in intramural basketball teams
modern size groups show the greatest cohesiveness
most important personal factor associated with the development of both task and social cohesion in sport teams individual satisfaction (individual actually enjoying)
anxiety can affect
The individual characteristics of group members.
Satisfaction- most important factor in developing task and social cohesion.
Competitive state anxiety
Social loafing- the reduction in individual effort when people work in groups versus when they work alone.
less that 100% effort
Ringlemann effect- the output of groups increases as they grow larger but the gain in productivity becomes less for each new member added.
observe individuals pulled on the rope
increase size of cheerleaders, the sound form them decreased
the quality of competition is one element having opportunities for social interactions with teammates is another. athletes need to feel like they are improving in the skill
recognition of others
Competitive state anxiety
athletes who perceived their teams to be higher in task cohesion seemed to experience less cognitive anxiety. members of more cohesive teams could experience less pressure to carry our the responsibilities of the group or satisfy other members expectations of themselves.
another personal factor related to cohesion
the reduction in individual effort when people working groups versus when they work alone
offense D-line will not block as hard if the play is going to the other side, but if they know that the coach is watching the film they will block hard
make sure their input can be evaluated
the interrelationships among the coach the athlete cohesiveness and performance are complex
The leadership style and behaviors exhibited and the relationships established with the groups.
Coach's decision style
when a set of individuals is brought together with the intension of performing as a group cohesion can be influenced by a number of structural characteristics that emerge as the group develops.
Roles- a set of behaviors expected from the occupants of specific positions within the group.
Norms- a standard for behavior that is expected of members of the group. freshmen holding senior bags
is a set of behaviors that are expected from the occupants of specific positions within the group.
two categories: formal and informal
are explicitly set out by the group or organization. coach team caption and manger are examples of leadership roles within the team.
setter in volleyball
evolve as a result of the interactions that take place among group members
enforcer- no one on the team gets bullied
often used to describe this element of role involvement and is define as the lack of clear consistent information regarding ones role
athletes belief about their capabilities to carry out role responsibilities.
athletes perceiving others to be sending incongruent expectations and or being unable to prioritize them appropriately
doesn't have motivation or time to fill the role
athletes having too many role expectations and or being unable to prioritize them appropriately
norm for productivity
occurs in industrial settings when the group establishes a level state of performance as acceptable and refuse to tolerate productivity above ( rat busting ) or below ( malingering) that standard.,
productivity and achievement
If the group cohesiveness is high and the norm productivity is high then performance will be
if cohesion is high and norm for productivity is low performance will be
Another important aspect of group norms
team members and leaders being on the same page
team factor that influences the development of a team concept and takes cohesion is the interactive processes that occur among the members. est. group goals or rewards
communication increases group cohesiveness
cohesiveness contributes to performance success and performance success increase cohesiveness
team enhancement or team improvement of both task and social purposes
shown to be effective
introductory stage, conceptual stage, a practical stage, intervention stage
discussion of the relationship between perceptions of cohesiveness and increased adherence to the exercise program.
accomplish three purposes
to facilitate communication with the coaches and leaders about complex concepts
to highlight the interrelatedness of various components of the team-building protocol
to identify the focus for possible interventions.
was to have coachs/leaders in an intercactive brainstorming seeing generate as many specific strategies as possible to us for team building in their group.
Coaches/leaders differ in personality and preferences strategy
motivation is enhanced when individuals are given grater control over personal behavior.
Team Building Intervention stage
protocols coaches or exercise leaders introduced and maintained in order to increase the level of task cohesiveness of the groups.
look at cohesion of this which shows who gets along with who, who is attracted to each other, or who doesn't like each other
- a tool to measure cohesion by disclosing affiliation and attraction among group members
The Cohesion-Performance Relationship
High team cohesion is linked to greater team success.
How? Perhaps by producing higher levels of effort.
Circular relationship: Increased cohesion leads to greater performance and brings teams together, which, in turn, leads to still more cohesion.
: Increased cohesion is related to increased satisfaction.
The more cohesive a group is, the greater its pressure to conform to the attitudes and behaviors of the group.
There is a positive relationship between the social support an individual receives and that person's evaluation of group cohesion
More cohesive exercise classes have better attendance, are more likely to arrive on time, are less likely to drop out, are more resistant to disruption, are more likely to experience positive affect related to exercise, and have stronger efficacy for exercise.
Personalities don't mix
conflict on them
got to know how to build them
Stability: Group goals
Teams higher in cohesion can better resist disruption; teams staying together longer tend to be more cohesive.
Building Cohesion Exercise settings: .
Classes with feelings of high group cohesion have fewer dropouts and late arrivals than do classes low in cohesion
Building Cohesion Sport settings:
Team-building exercises, clear and meaningful roles, team goals, communication, and personal sacrifice are related to increased cohesion.
The MAPS Approach to Team Building
Mission: Derive and clarify team mission. if not the players will develop amublity
Assessment: Assess team strengths and areas needing improvement.
Plan: Develop action plans to improve effort and commitment.
Systematic evaluation: Reflect, review, and revise group goals and plans.
Strategies for Building Group Cohesiveness
Have a group name.
Make a group T-shirt.
Hand out neon shoelaces.
Make posters for class
soccer dresses different from volleyball team
Principles Underlying the Team-Building Program in a Sport Setting
Typically indirect since team-building exercises must be filtered through the coach
Distinctiveness- make the team feel as if it's different from everyone else.
Sacrifice- gather commitments from team members.
Guidelines for Building Team Cohesion
Strategies for leaders
Explain individual roles in team success.
Develop pride within subunits.
Set challenging team goals.
Encourage team identity.
Avoid formation of social cliques.
Avoid excessive turnover.
Conduct periodic team meetings.
Enhance team efficacy.
Know the team climate.
Get to know others; enhance personal disclosure
Strategies for group members
Get to know other members of the group.
Help group members whenever possible.
Give group members positive reinforcement.
Communicate honestly and openly with leader.
Give 100% effort at all times
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