DCUSH Unit 1 Review Olivia Ausmus
The New Government
Terms in this set (86)
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Passed in response to the alien and Sedition acts of 1798. authored by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Resolutions argued that federal govn't had no authority to exercise power not given to it in the constitution.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Signed into law by President John Adams. 4 laws passed by Federalist controlled congress as US prepped for war w/ france. Acts increased residency requ. for US citizenship from 5 to 14 yrs. Allowed president to deport people unsafe to the US and restricted critical speech of the governmetn. Laws designed to weaken the Deomo-Repub party. Negative reaction helped contribute to Demo-Repub party victory in next election. Congressed repealed the Naturalization Act, the other acts were allowed to expire
diplomatic events involving US and france. During John adams' presidency. Undeclared war Quasi-war. Peace restored with convention (Treaty of Mortefontaine).
Farmers farms being taken from them, high debt (Massachusetts). Massachusetts government seized farms and farmers put in prison because couldn't pay debt. First armed rebellion shutting down courts. Angry with government in Boston.
Alexander Hamilton proposed a tax on _____, citizens didn't like it. Farmers who made _____ were hostile to this. Rebels attacked tax inspector home. George Washington put state militias on ready and sent negotiators. Henry Lee marched to Pennsylvania. By the time they arrived, rebellion had ended. Jefferson thought that Hamilton was a dangerous man.
First Bank of US. chartered for 20 year. 3 part expansion of federal pwer (Alexander Hamilton) necessary to stablilize nations ccredit. Faced Reisistance. Jefferson and Madison led opposition. Thought it was unconstitutional..
Bill of Rights
James Madison main author. First 10 amendments. To calm fears of Anti-federalists who opposed constitutional ratification. Orig. only applied to fed. govn't but later adopted by state govn't through incorporation
granted Congress power to pass laws needed for carrying out list of powers. (Necessity and Proper Clause)
agreement between North and south that Slaves counted as 3/5 a person in the way of taxes and representation in congress
New Jersey Plan
unsuccdessfully proposed at constitutional convention. Provided for single legislative house with equal representation for each state.(Wiliam Paterson)
Founding of University of Virginia. Author of the Declaration of Independence. 3rd president of the US. From Virginia
Father of the Constitution (Virginia Plan) 4th President
defended British Soldiers from the Boston Massacre. 2nd president of the US. Helped Draft the Declaration of Independence.
drafted by James Madison
Abandoned federal system created by the articles.
States retain power, but national government remains supreme in area of authority.
Single executive branch, two house legislature, and judiciary
Lower house of congress directly elected by the people. Upper house elected by the lower house from list provided by state legislature.
No matter the size state, has same vote as large state.
• Representation in proportion to its population
Congress has power to legislate in cases where separate states are incompetent.
Thought a more general plan of authority would be in better favor than long list of powers.
Small states opposed this
No one really liked him. Was president. Tried to do Whiskey tax - failed couldnt control the rebellion. Tried to make a national bank - failed. Jefferson Hated him
written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. Kind of letters to Jefferson as well.
Retired in Mt. Vernon. Was the first US. President.
Battle of Trenton
Dec,. 26, 1776. After George W. Crossed the Delaware River north of ___, NY. After brief battle the entire Hessian force captured with only small US losses. Battle boosted Continental Army's morale and inspired enlistments
Battle of Saratoga
2 sig battles. Crucial victory for patriots. Turning pt. of the Revolutionary war. Impetus for France to enter war against Britain. re-invigorated Washington's army and provided supplies and support. Happened in NY colony
Battle of Yorktown
George Washington commanded 17,000 french troops to seize Yorktown against Cornwallis 9,000 troops at Yorktown Virginia. Most imp. battle of revolutionary war. French fleet departed for Chesapeake Bay just as Cornwallis chose Yorktown at mouth of Chesapeake. Washington ordered Lafayette and US army to block Cornwallis escape by land while France blocked escape by sea. After 3 weeks. Cornwallis surrendered.
Battle of Long Island
Battle of Brooklyn. Defeat for continental army under Washington. gave british control over an imp. city of NY. First major battle to take place after teh US declared independence. Largest battle of the entire war (troop size)
Early american hero, who later became worst traitors. Switched sides and fought for the British. Helped capture Fort Ticonderoga for US. Helped hinder British invasion of NY at lake Champlain. And helped army surrender at Saratoga. Henever felt appreciated so entered into British and turned over US post at west point for money. He was discovered, but escaped.
Articles of Confederation
weak central govn't. most power held by the states. Congress had control over diplomacy, printing money, problems between states, coordinating war effort. Created Continental army. Congress couldn't force states to obey central govnt's request for aid for more members of the army.
Written by Thomas Paine. Inspired 13 colonies to fight for independence. Explained advantages for need for independence. Was orig. published anonymously
Army leader. Campaign to wear british down. won few battles. kept army together. Gave up command of armies near end of war when some officers wanted him to have control over new govn't.
war waged by indians in great lakes area against British rule after french and indian war. Indians unsuccessfully attacked Fort Detroit. British soon came but defeated at the battle of bloody ruin. Indians decimated by diseases. British ended the conflict. Peace treaty signed by ____. Treaty was not an indian surrender, no prisoners exchanged, no land ceded.
killing of 5 colonists by British. accumulation of tension in American colonies since British first appeared in Massachusetts and enforced heavy taxes by the Townsend acts.
Imposed on colonists. required them to pay a tax on every printed piece of paper that they used. (replace all papers had previous, ex: playing cards)
final spark to revolutionary movement. Imposed no new taxes. Designed to prop up East India trading co. Tea was to be shipped direct to colonies, so colonies could't buy cheaper tea from foreign. had to buy from mother country
Second Continental Congress
convention of delegates from 13 colonies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania after the revolutionary war. Managed colonial war effort and moved towards independence adopting the Declaration of Independence. Acted as the national government of the U.S. for the time being.
Act known as British North America. Act of Parliament for setting of government in providence of ____. Province territory was supposed to take over indian land.
Guaranteed free practice of Catholicism
Restored use of French Civil Law for private matters. Maintained English common law for public admin (criminals, etc)
Sons of Liberty
Organization that was formed to protect the rights of teh colonists. Took to the streets against abuses of British Government. Did the Boston Tea Party against the tea act, which resulted in the Intolerable Acts. Kind of terrorists.
to punish Boston for the Tea Party it closed the port of Boston to trade, abolished the local government and sent troops to Boston to control it.
Idea that Parliament represented every person in the empire and there was no need for representatives from the colonies.
Virginian surveyor and plantation owner. Expedition against the French in the French and Indian War. Fort Necessity, etc. Served will in Braddock's defeat during french and Indian war.
Highly influential philosopher. His writings helped found modern Western philosophy. Influenced Thomas Jefferson greatly. Father of Liberalism
John Peter Zenger
Printed New York weekly journal. Was a defendent in a famous trial
signer of the declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Helped negotiate treaty for the treaty of Paris
Christian Preacher. Puritan Heritage. Champion of teh Great Awakening. Hell-fire and Damnation sermons. President of College of New Jersey.
Spiritual Renewal (esp. New England colonies). Disassociate traditional approach to worship (complacency) more praying. Began with George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards. Allowed emotion expression.
Puritan Minister. During the Glorious Revolution, he supported Witch trials until the end, when he said no spectral evidence and he didn't agree with witchcraft anymore.
witch trials. Series of hearings for people accused of witchcraft in Massachusetts. Executed 17 people. Most old women. During a time when Massachusetts didn't have a governor.
New England shipped run to West Africa in exchange for slaves. Slaves taken on middle passage to west indies where they were sold for molasses and money. Molasses sent to new England to make rum and start trade all over again.
Rules based on concept that slaves were property and not people. Gave certain rules between the property rights of the masters. Curtailed travelling of the slaves. Can't teach them to read or write. Couldn't testify in court.
where Protestant Dutch Prince William of Orange ousted James from the throne and put William and Mary (James daughter) on the throne to re-establish a Protestant monarchy. The beheading of Charles 1 happened during this period.
laws restricting use of foreign ships for trade between Britain and it's colonies.
Founder of Georgia. thought it was dumb that debtors were sitting in prison when they could be earning money and paying off their debts in the new world.
the crossing of the Atlantic ocean from Africa to the west indies.
masonry fort in US by the Spanish to protect from British Colonies in the north.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
first constitution written in North America. Written by the puritans. Had a preamble and eleven orders. Have a commonwealth.
New York and New Jersey Colonies
Originally settled and controlled by the Dutch; was transferred to England in 1664 and became royal colonies with a governor.
Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania. Land Granted to him for a debt that the king owed his father for serving in the war.
Carolina and Barbados
Colonists who founded Carolina came to South Carolina from the Barbados. Population in Barbados boomed because Sugar made a lot of money. That Island was the wealthiest of the England Colonies. Many people went there to get rich quick, land grew scarce. 60% people on the island were slaves.
King Philip's War
War between the Colonists and Native Americans in New England. War named for the Chief whom they called _______. Resulted in the disappearance of the fur trade. Very Costly war.
Born in England. Was a Puritan so went to New England. she was banished for extreme and radical views. and Antomian Heresy. Said that she received revelation from God.
Founded state of Rhode Island. Advocated separation of church and state. First Great Challenge to orthodoxy in Massachusetts. He attacked govn't Massachusetts for using power of state to enforce religious orthodoxy.And attacked Puritans for stealing indians land
sort of extreme religion. Protestants then Calvinists then Puritans. Religion inspired because of Calvin. Enforced religion through law. John Winthrop was the governor in Massachusetts valley, preached about a city on a hill.
person who came had their passage paid to america in exchange for working for someone without pay for usually seven years.
led by Nathaniel ___. Against Governor William Berkley. Colony had a disorganized political circle, helped move uprising against Berkely who failed t o address demands of the colonists regarding their safety (indian attacks were occurring)
Act of Toleration
Act of Parliament granting freedom of Religion to worship.Act did not apply to Catholics and maintained social and political restrictions (exclusion from political office.)
Lord Calvert and Maryland
Lord Baltimore was the founder of Maryland. First interested in colonization for commercial reasons, but mostly wanted to create a catholic refuge.
1624 change in virginia
King James I assumed responsibility for Virginia after he dissolved the Virginia Company in England. Ordered Virginia leaders to make record of the colonies inhabitants and provisions.
House of Burgesses
Colonists drew on claims to traditional English rights and raised representative assemblies. This was the Virginia House of Burgesses, the first popularly elected legislature in the new world.
introduced tobacco as commercial crop to Virginia colonists. He was also married to Pocahontas, helped bring period of peace between indians and colonists
first permanent settlement in America 1607
joint stock company made by royal charter by James I. Responsible for establishing Jamestown Settlement.
Governor of Virginia during Bacon's Rebellion (1675-1676), did not act to protect frontier settlements from Indian attacks
daughter of Henry viii and queen o fengland from 1558 to 1603. Ruled England in the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Known as the _____an era of Golden Era. Sir Francis Drake and others were under her. She started the real rise of England as a World Power.
- promoted governmental regulation of nation's economy for increasing state power at the expense of rivals. Coined by Scottish econonomiucs Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations (1776). Colonies support the mother country,.
- cultural and biological exchanges between the new andn old worlds. Exchange of plants, animals, diseases and technology, Beginning with Columbus's discovery in 1492
- infectious disease caused by mariola major and minor. Known to English as the pox or red plague. Destroyed many Indians.
Treaty of Tordesillas
- agreement between spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands discovered by Christopher Columbus. To accommodate them the Spanish born pope Alexander VI set up a line of Demarcation. Spain was given rights to all lands west of the line (Cape Verde Islands) and Portugal for east of the line. Neither power was to occupy terrtitory already in the hands of a Christian ruler. Gave Spain Brazil
- opened way for exploration and colonization of America starting in 1492. Voyages under Ferdiand and Isabella. He was an Italian.
Vasco de Gama
- voyages to india opened the sea route from western Europe to the east by the way of the cape of good hope Africa.
- the navigator (1394-1460) sent sailing expeditions down to Africa's west coast but didn't go on them himself. Portuguese shps sailed to the Madeira Islands, and much of the coast to establish trade routes, creat maps, spread chritsianity, and defeat Muslims. helped begin the age of discovery.
- Spanish Conquistador who overthrew the Aztec empire and won mexico for the crown of spain.
Aztecs and Incas
Conquered people by Hernando Cortez. had a lot of gold and silver. Lived in south America
- grown in the Caribbean. Columbus brought it during the second voyage to the Americans. Later African slaves were used to grow it to form molasses. Shipped from the Carribbean to Europe or new England to be turned into rum.
Associated with science
Trying to figure out the world
Product of people like Ben, Religious but in a deist kind of way.
Fleet of Spanish ships. tried to invade England. Lost.
Started by Martin Luther. break off of the Roman Catholic church. Start of Protestantism.
- Christain whose teachings inspired the Porotestant reformation and influenced the docterines of of Protestant and toher traditions. He translated the bible into german from latin
William and Mary
- ended the glorious revolution by signing the English bill of rights. Restored Protestant monarchy. Took King James' place
- Responsible for the overthrow of the monarchy temporarily turning Enlgand into republican commonwealth and assuming rule as Lored Protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
King Charles I
- king executed during the civil war, under Oliver Cromwell