"Night of the broken glass." Using the shooting of a minor German official in Paris, Ernst vom Rath, by a young Jewish Student, the Nazis, organized and led by SA men all over Germany, carried out three nights of violence against Jews, Jewish homes, synagogues and businesses. The Nazis smashed, burned and looted. Over 26,000 Jews were arrested and taken into "Protective Custody" and sent to concentration camps for days or weeks; many were beaten in the streets; about 35 were killed. This was the last pogrom in Germany, and it took place on November 9-11, 1938. Among the results were the enormous claims filed by Germans against German insurance companies; openly hostile publicity from foreign reporters who observed the anti-Jewish riots; protests from foreign ministries - including the United States. President Roosevelt temporarily withdrew the American Ambassador to Germany. The Jews were charged a billion mark penalty to pay for the damages and the event was followed by a series of anti-Jewish laws.