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40 terms

geology exam 3

STUDY
PLAY
divide
the highest point in elevation in which all water falling on it must either flow to one side or the other
a watershed is enclosed by
a divide, all water sources drain to one common channel
discharge
total flow of the volume of water per unit of time
graded stream
a river/stream that is able to maintain inflow and outflow of sediment
gradient
the steepness of the river
base level
where the river/stream reaches its final destination
in a base level, the river/stream reaches the
mouth
if there is more sediment than the water can hold, the excess may spread out to form an
alluvia fan
load
the volume a river/stream can carry
braided rivers form because
too much sediment forces multiple channels to form
overland flow aka surface runoff
rainwater that is not absorbed into the ground
ground water transport
water seeps into ground and flows in the soils
when does flooding happen?
when there is too much water for the channel to hold, water level goes past bankfull
what's the first thing to flood
floodplains
are floodplains supposed to be flooded every now and then?
yes
4 types of levee failure =====
- overtopping
- underflow
- stomping
- erosion
trees draw up enormous amounts of
water
deforestation causes the water table to
rise
creep is caused by
gravity pulling rock/soil on a slope downward
angle of repose
the steepest angle at which any loose material is stable
cohesion
the product of the forces that hold soil particles together
quick clays
water-saturated muds i marine bays and old salt lake beds
rockfall
occurs on steep vertical cliffs
rotational slumps
slide on a curved slip and leaves slumps that have tilted blocks
shotcrete concrete
sprayed onto rock to resist water access
evapotranspiration
planting of trees and shrubs because they absorb water
rockbolts
designed to hold back rockwalls
Karst topography
obvious evidence of caves in area
most of the ocean's waves come from
the friction of the wind blowing over the surface of the water
fetch
the distance the wind of a certain velocity blows
wave refraction
when waves approach the shoreline on an angle
groins are built to
trap sand
jetties
keeps the longshore current from blocking an inlet
tomolo forms when
waves approach the shore parallel to the shoreline and collide with a sea slack
weather
the condition of the atmosphere at a specific place and time-temp. air pressure, humidity, precipitation, air motion
climate
weather of an area over a long period of time
sublimation
going from solid to gas
precession
when the axis wobbles
obliquity
when the axis moves from 22.1 to 24.5 degrees
what produces heavy precipitation?
cold fronts