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Commercial Revolution

the Commercial Revolution was a direct result of the age of exploration. Merchants who had made fortunes wanted to further invest their money and increase their wealth, but with limited risk. The king issued charters, which allowed joint-stock companies to be established to defer the risk. These companies would be very important in the colonization of America.

Black Death

Also known as the Bubonic Plague. Starting in A.D. 1348 when a Genoese trading ship landed in Italy with the plague. The epidemics swept across Europe wiping out towns and villages and destroying society. Perhaps as many as one-third of the population of Europe died from the disease.


Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.


Everyday language of a specific nation.


Bands of Italian mercenaries. They fought for the highest bidder, which often proved a deadly game.

"New Monarchs"

Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries and increase their own power and influence.


The belief in material things instead of religious things.

Star Chamber

The Star Chamber was an English court of law located at Westminster palace. It was called the Star Chamber because of a large star painted on the ceiling. It was created during the medieval period, but Henry VII is credited with making it powerful and efficient. Sessions were open to the public and even though the court could use torture it could not use the death penalty. It was abolished in 1641.


Religious moderates who wanted a strong monarch.


Assembly of nobles in Spain. These nobles had the right to review the policies of the monarchy


"Brotherhoods" groups of people who had been given the authority to act as a police force in Spanish towns and cities.


The reconquista was the war in Spain waged by the Christians to reclaim the whole peninsula. The objective was to convert or expel the Jews and the Moors.


Religious tribunals, primarily in Spain. In 1478 Pope Sixtus IV gave Ferdinand and Isabella permission to put heretics on trial.


Selling of these was common practice by the Catholic Church, corruption that led to reformation.


The selling of church offices.


The practice of lending money for interest.


The holding of several church offices at the same time.

Diet of Worms (1521)

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Pope Leo X declared Luther an outlaw.


French Calvinists.


Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I. Initially advocated 3 sacraments but then accepted only 2: Communion and baptism.


A community in which the state is subordinate to the church. Best example was Geneva under John Calvin.


Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life. God already knows who is going to Heaven regardless of their life on Earth.

Catholic Reformation

The Catholic or Counter Reformation involved efforts by the Catholic Church to convince people to return to Catholicism.

Cuius regio eius religio

The religion of the ruler of a region dictates the religion of the region.


Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism and the

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