27 terms

Unit 2- Renaissance and Reformation

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Terms in this set (...)

black death
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
florence
an Italian city-state and leading cultural center during the Renaissance
patron
Someone who gives money or other support to a person or group- during the renaissance these individuals/families financially supported artists and sponsored them to create art for their city
city-state
A city that is also a separate, independent state.
humanism
An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements
secular
Non-religious,
worldly
single point perspective
A technique for achieving a sense of depth by establishing a single vanishing point and painting or building all objects to diminish to it.
vanishing point
A point in space, usually located on the horizon, where parallel edges of an object appear to converge.
Medici Family
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art,
Donatello
Italian sculptor renowned as a pioneer of the Renaissance style with his natural, lifelike figures, such as the bronze statue David.
Raphael
painter; blended Christian and classical styles; famous works include The School of Athens and his portrayals of the Madonna
Michelangelo
An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Leonardo Da Vinci
A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa.
Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
John Calvin
French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings. taught predestination
printing press
A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.
Johannes Gutenberg
Invented the printing press
95 Theses
It was nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517 and is widely seen as being the catalyst that started the Protestant Reformation. It contained Luther's list of accusations against the Roman Catholic Church.
Indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Lutheranism
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicism in the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
predestination
Often associated with Calvinism in the Protestant Reformation, it is the doctrine that God has already chosen who will be saved and become Christian and that people have no actual choice in the matter.
reform
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
heretic
a person who holds beliefs that are contrary to a set of religious teachings
causes of the reformation
social- values of the Ren. led people to question the church and the invention of the printing press helped spread ideas
political- monarchs challenged the church's authority and people challenged the authority of the pope
economic- princes were jealous of the churchs wealth and merchants resented paying taxes to the church
religious- church leaders became corrupt, people thought selling indulgences was unacceptable
King Henry VIII
king and protestant reformer of England, broke away from the church because he wanted a divorce, became head of the Anglican church
bubonic plague
Deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, spread by rats and fleas
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