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139 terms

GMAT

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Misplace Modifier
A descriptive word or phrase should immediately follow the thing that it modifies
Pronouns
must clearly refer to a noun, and must agree with that noun in gender and quatity
Subject/Verb Agreement
A subject must always agree with its verb
Parallel Construction
Items in alist or items that are being compared, must all contain the same parts of speech and must look the same
Verb Tense
Simple past, present, and past perfect are the three verb tenses most commonly tested on the GMAT.
Use the
When an action started in the past and ....
Simple Past
Has ceased to occur : Alex looked puzzled when you told him the news
Present perfect
Continues to the present: As long as I have known him, Alex has looked puzzled in meetings.
Past perfect
Was completed before some other past action began. : Alex has always looked puzzled in meetings until he got a new boss.
Where
only when referring to an actual location
When
only to denote a moment in time
The talk show host agitated the guests to the point that they were throwing chairs at each other.
that : idioms
I look back fondly on the 1983 County Fair, at which I won the prize for biggest watermelon.
which: idioms
That desk is where I spend countless hours working at my thankless job.
where:idioms
I'll go out with you when the clock strikes thirteen, and not a moment
when:idioms
Who left the door open?-subject
He left the door open
who:idioms :he use who
I can't wait to see whom she'll bring to dinner this time.
....she'll bring him to dinner this time
whom: idioms : he use whom
You are not only clever but you are also charming
Not only...but also : idioms
I am not so foolsih as to fall for that a third time
Not so....as:idioms
The basketball player is not tall, but he is fast
Not...but : idioms
I'll take either a BMWor a Lexus; I'm not particular
either ....or: idioms
I will eat neither tomatoes nor Brussels sprouts; they smell funny
neither...nor :idioms
You should admit you're afraid of both clowns and elephants .
both...and: idioms
That weightlifter has more muscle in his head than he has brains.
more...than
more, -er, between
only two things comparatives: idioms
Between cake and ice cream, I like ice cream more.
only two things comparatives: idioms
most, -est, among
three or more things: comparatives:idioms
Among the there sisters, Cinderella was the most beautiful
three or more things: comparatives:idioms
The more you eat, the fatter you get
The more...the -er:idioms
Just as I have found my cell phone indispensable, so you will too
Just as....so too: idioms
Washing my car in the winter is not as easy as it is in the summer.
As....as
Many, Number, Fewer
Can be counted: quantity words: idioms
Much, amount, less
cannot be counted quantity words: idioms
Give a child as many hugs as you can. No human can read that number of pages in an hour.
can be counted:quantity words: idioms
Give a child as much love as you can. No human can read that amount of material in an hour.
cannot be counted quantity words: idioms
you should use a singular verb.... The number of excuses grows every time he tells the story.
The number of : idioms
use a plural verb, something is multitude....A number of survivors of the plane crash swam to shore
A number of: idioms
although she looks much older, Faye Dunaway is the same age as my mothers.
The same....as: idioms
You are no different from me; we both want success.
Different from:idioms
"ER" is superior television show to "Survivor"
Superior to : idioms
Dazed by the battle, the soldier could no longer distinguish friend from enemy.
Distinguish from: idioms
My dad says I can no longer associate with you
Associate with : idioms
Apirl found herself choosing between the devil and the deep blue sea.
Between...and: idioms
If you contrast one politician's ethics with another's, you will find no difference
Contrast...with: idioms
It is my responsibility to feed the parakeet.
Responsibility to: idioms
I am responsible for feeding the parakeet.
Responsible for: idioms
Sheep herding requires a shepherd to stay with his flock at all times.
Require ...to: idioms
I forbid you to interrupt me again
Forbid to: idioms
I can physically prohibit you from interrupting me again.
Prohibit ...from: idioms
She worried about where they would hide the loot.
Worry about: idioms
Convicted felons are not permitted to vote
Permit to: idioms
Please try to chew with your month closed at the awards dinner tonight.
try to: idioms
He has an ability to turn around a failing business
Ability ..to:idioms
I no longer believe the tooth fairy to be real
Believe ...to be: idioms
Many consider Henry Kissinger the greatest statesman of the twentieth century.
Consider : idioms
The sideshow barker estimated Henry to be a fool.
Estimate....to be :idioms
Some Republicans define welfare abuse as the primary evil in America.
Define as:idioms
Shakespeare is regarded as the greatest playwright of all time
Regard as :idioms
She thinks of me as just a friend
Think of ...as: idioms
My father sees a large investment portfolio as a sign of success
see as:idioms
noun, Not surprisingly, Donald Trump is a native of New York City
Native of: idioms
Okra is a native to Africa : Adjective
Native to: idioms
The lawnmower that you came to fix is in the garge. This is required information
That: idioms
The lawnmower, which is in the garge, is broken beyond repair. This is extraneous information.
Which: idioms
He does not bathe every day, as I do. IS used to compare noun/ verb combinations.
As: idioms
That car is just like one my father had. Is used when comparing only nouns.
like: idioms
Why must you act like a four-year old. is used to mean similar to
like: idioms
Many of the top desingers, such as Ralph Lauren and Donna Karan, have less expensive lines as well. Is used to mean for example
such as: idioms
Route 66 is a highway that runs from Chicago to Los Angeles.
From...to:idioms
Many theories in contemporary psychology are attributed to Freud.
Attribute...to:idioms
Benjamin Franklin is credited with the invention of the U.S Postal system.
Credit...with:idioms
Each of the schools he applied to had it own strengths. Is used when you want to emphasize that items are separate
Each:idioms
Both of the programs were highly regarded. All of the schools offer financial assistance. I sused when you wanto to emphasize that items are together or similar.
all or both: idioms
She was so blunt that many considered her rude.
so....that:idioms
Joe is so smart as to be intimidating.
so....as to be: idioms
A hypothesis that the aluminum in soda cans causes Alzheimer's disease is circulating on the Internet.
Hypothesis that: idioms
Many cigarette companies target their advertising at children.
Target .....at: idioms
Coefficient
The number 3 in front of the variable in an espression like 3xy is called
Consecutive
describes integers listed in ascending order, which are separated by the same interval. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 are consective integers and the numbers 2, 4, 6,8 are consecutive even integers.
decimals
are a way of expressing parts of a whole. To add or subtract just line up the decimal points. For multiplying/dividing decimals add up the total number of decimal places to the right of the decimal point in the numbers you multiplied and put the decimal point the smae number of digits over from the right, in your product.
difference
the result of subtraction
digit
are 0.1.2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9-the numbers you see on a telephone. GMAT math problems might ask you either to count digits or supply a missing digit. Try counting the digits in 2654.189. There are seven.
distinct
is simply a mathematial way of saying "different." So when you are asked to count the distinct prime factors of 12, you would answer that there are two 2 and 3. Even though 12=2x2x3, you can only count 2 once.
dividend
The number you are dividing another number into
divisible
When a number can be divided evenly by another number, it is said to be divisible by that number. So 6 is divisble by 3, but is not divisible by 4. The GMAT, however is more likely to ask you whether 728 is divisible by 4. ( Yes it is)
A # is divisible by 2 if
it ends in 0, 2, 4,6, or 8
A # is divisible by 3 if
adding its digits yields a number divisible by 3
A # is divisble by 4 if
The last two digits, considered as a number, are divisible by 4. Example, Take 728. The last two digits form the number 28, which is divisble by 4.
A # is divisble by 5 if
It ends in 5 or 0
A # is divisble by 6 if
It is divisible by both 2 and 3
A # is divisble by 7 if
There is no easy test, but in a pinch, you can divide by 2 and check whether or not the resulting number is divisble by 4
A # is divisble by 8 if
There is no easy test, but in a pinch, you can divide by 2 and check whether or not the resulting number is divisible by 4
A # is divisble by 9 if
Adding its digits results in a number that's a multiple of 9
Even number
number is one that can be divided evenly by 2. numbers are whole and they end in 2, 4,6,8, or 0. The number zero (0) is considered this.
Odd number
number is a whole number that, when divided by two yields a remainder of 1. these numbers end in 1, 3,5,7, or 9.
exponent
simply tells you to "multiply this number x times." So 2^3= 2x2x2 or 8. The number you multiply is called the base and the little superscript number that tells you how many times to multiply the base is called an exponent or a power. So in 3^2, 3 is the base and 2 is the power.
Any number to the 1 power is
itself 5^1=5
Any number to the 0 power is
1:5^0=1
Any positive number greater than 1, raised to the power greater than 1
becomes larger for example, 3^2=9
Any negative number raised to an even power becomes
positive-3^4=81
Any negative number raised to an odd power stays
negative -3^3=-27
Any fraction between 0 and 1 that's raised to a power greater than 1 gets
smaller, for example (1/2)^2=1/4
Negative exponents
When you see this just turn the base into a fraction by putting a 1 over it and proceed as you would with a nonnegative exponent so 3^-2=(1/3)^2=1/9
Fractional Exponents
are pretty much just another way of writing square roots
adding and subtracting exponents
to add and subtract exponents, both the base and the power must be the same. If they are, just add or subtract as you normally would. So, 3x^2+5x^2=8x^2
multiplying and dividing exponents
make sure that the bases are the same. To multiply, add the exponents and multiply the coefficients, and to divide, subtract the exponents and divide the coefficients, 3x^25x^3=15x^5 and 15x^6/3x^2=5x^4
factors
are numbers that can be divided into another number without leaving a remainder. For example, the numbers 1,2,3,4,6 and 12 are the factors of 12.
fractions
is the most basic expression of parts of a whole.For example. if a whole pizza has 8 slices and James eats 3, he has eaten 3/8 of the pizza.
numerator
the top number in a fraction
denominator
the bottom number in a fraction
reducing fractions
on the GMAT Fractions are expressed in their most reduced form. This means that you'll have to simply your anwers, for instance , by reducing fractions. To reduce a fraction, simply find a number that's a factor of both its numerator and denominator, and factor it out, like this.
35/49=5/7 x7/7=5/7x7/7=5/7x1=5/7 Redcuing a fraction makes it easier to work with, which makes it less likely that you'll commit an error. Common factors to start with when you're reducing are 2, 3, and 5.
adding/subtracting fractions
if you need to add or subtract two fractions that have the same denominator, simply add or subtract their numerators, like this: 3/4+1/4=4/4 or 1
If the numbers in the denominators are different, this opertation will invovle a couple of extra steps. The Bowtie is a simple way of adding and subtracting fractions like these: 5/8+3/5
To use the bowtie method, 1st multiply straight across the bottom of the fraction to find a common denominator. Then multiply top to bottom, top to bottom, like a bowtie. Finally, add or subtact to find the numerator.
multiplying and dividing fractions
When multiplying two or more fractions, just multiply their numerators and then their denominators. Dividing fractions works a lot like multiplying fractions, with one important extra step. To divide fractions, multiply the first by the reciprocal of the secong. So flip the secong fraction and multiply in the regular way.
Cross Multiplication
To slove an equation that contains two fractions containing variables when they're equal to each other, you can simply cross multiply or multiply the top of each fraction by the bottom of the other. 3x/4=3/2
(3x)(2)=(3)(4)=6x=12 x=2
Integer
is any whole number, positive, negative, or zero. So -3. 100. and 0 are all integers
multiple
the result of multiplying any number by any other number is called a multiple. The numbers 8, 16, and 424 are all multiples of 4.
order of operations
refers to just what it sounds like: the order in which mathematical operations are to be performed. Exponents, Multiplications, Division, Addition, and Subtraction
positive/negative numbers
any number greater than 0. So 1/4, 5000, but 0 is not. any number that's less than 0,-15, 0 is not
prime numbers
have exactly 2 distinct factors:1 and themselves. For example, 13 is prime b/c its only factor are 1 and 13. The number 1 is not prime; it has only one distinct factor
product
the result of multipication is called this
quotient
the result of division
reciprocal
the inverse of a number or fraction is the reciprocal. 5/8 is 8/5
remainder
is the number that's left over after division.The remainder when you diivide 35 by 8 is 3.
Square root
so 16=4 or -4 b/c both (4)^2 and (-4)^2=16 you cannot add these unless they have a common root. so 2+2=2 but 2+3 doesn't equal 5. To multiply and divide just treat them as regular integers: 6x3=18 or 3/2 basically they're subject to the same rules as exponents. x^1/2 is just X this
Sum
The result of addition is called this
whole number
is a number that does not have any fractional parts. the number 2 is a whole number but 2.5 is not
zero
is an integer, it's neither pos nor neg, and it's even mutiplying this always give you a product of 0 and dividing this is impossible
The 4 Step Approach
1. Read the Questions
2. Break it Down
3. Answer the Questions in your own words
4. Process of Elimination
Scope
the argument is dictated by the information given in the conclusion and the premises, by far the most common reason for eliminating answer choices in the arguments section
out of scope
When you see an answer choice that goes beyong the realm of the argument, you can consider it and eliminate it
opposite
When you're dealing with questions that ask you to weaken or strengthen the author's conclusion, be very wary of answer choices that while within the scope, do exactly the opposite of what you want, while it is the scope of the argument, it is the opposite of the anwer choice you want and you should eliminate it
extreme
extreme wording is another very common reason for eliminating anser choice in POE
strengthen
if the author proves his point by making an assumption, you'll include additional data to bolster the assumption....if the author cites a survey in support of his conclusion, you'll give evidence to prove the validity of the survey.etc...
assumption
evaluate how each answer choice contributes to the support of the conculsion
reasoning
willl focus more on describing the pattern of reasoning than in paraphasing the content of the argument, questions of this type may read: Which of the following indicates a flaw in the reasoning above?, Susan's attempt to counter Tim's claim is best characterized as...., Dan's response has which of the following relationships to Aliss'a argument?, The author makes his point chiefly by....
Percent
What is Percent of
X = (1/100) x
percent change
difference/orginal
plugging in
replace all variables in the with numbers, read through the new problem and answer the question, plug your number into the answer choices and look for your number
Basic approach to data sufficiency
AD VS. BCE