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Misplace Modifier

A descriptive word or phrase should immediately follow the thing that it modifies

Pronouns

must clearly refer to a noun, and must agree with that noun in gender and quatity

Subject/Verb Agreement

A subject must always agree with its verb

Parallel Construction

Items in alist or items that are being compared, must all contain the same parts of speech and must look the same

Verb Tense

Simple past, present, and past perfect are the three verb tenses most commonly tested on the GMAT.

Use the

When an action started in the past and ....

Simple Past

Has ceased to occur : Alex looked puzzled when you told him the news

Present perfect

Continues to the present: As long as I have known him, Alex has looked puzzled in meetings.

Past perfect

Was completed before some other past action began. : Alex has always looked puzzled in meetings until he got a new boss.

Where

only when referring to an actual location

When

only to denote a moment in time

The talk show host agitated the guests to the point that they were throwing chairs at each other.

that : idioms

I look back fondly on the 1983 County Fair, at which I won the prize for biggest watermelon.

which: idioms

That desk is where I spend countless hours working at my thankless job.

where:idioms

I'll go out with you when the clock strikes thirteen, and not a moment

when:idioms

Who left the door open?-subject

He left the door open

He left the door open

who:idioms :he use who

I can't wait to see whom she'll bring to dinner this time.

....she'll bring him to dinner this time

....she'll bring him to dinner this time

whom: idioms : he use whom

You are not only clever but you are also charming

Not only...but also : idioms

I am not so foolsih as to fall for that a third time

Not so....as:idioms

The basketball player is not tall, but he is fast

Not...but : idioms

I'll take either a BMWor a Lexus; I'm not particular

either ....or: idioms

I will eat neither tomatoes nor Brussels sprouts; they smell funny

neither...nor :idioms

You should admit you're afraid of both clowns and elephants .

both...and: idioms

That weightlifter has more muscle in his head than he has brains.

more...than

more, -er, between

only two things comparatives: idioms

Between cake and ice cream, I like ice cream more.

only two things comparatives: idioms

most, -est, among

three or more things: comparatives:idioms

Among the there sisters, Cinderella was the most beautiful

three or more things: comparatives:idioms

The more you eat, the fatter you get

The more...the -er:idioms

Just as I have found my cell phone indispensable, so you will too

Just as....so too: idioms

Washing my car in the winter is not as easy as it is in the summer.

As....as

Many, Number, Fewer

Can be counted: quantity words: idioms

Much, amount, less

cannot be counted quantity words: idioms

Give a child as many hugs as you can. No human can read that number of pages in an hour.

can be counted:quantity words: idioms

Give a child as much love as you can. No human can read that amount of material in an hour.

cannot be counted quantity words: idioms

you should use a singular verb.... The number of excuses grows every time he tells the story.

The number of : idioms

use a plural verb, something is multitude....A number of survivors of the plane crash swam to shore

A number of: idioms

although she looks much older, Faye Dunaway is the same age as my mothers.

The same....as: idioms

You are no different from me; we both want success.

Different from:idioms

"ER" is superior television show to "Survivor"

Superior to : idioms

Dazed by the battle, the soldier could no longer distinguish friend from enemy.

Distinguish from: idioms

My dad says I can no longer associate with you

Associate with : idioms

Apirl found herself choosing between the devil and the deep blue sea.

Between...and: idioms

If you contrast one politician's ethics with another's, you will find no difference

Contrast...with: idioms

It is my responsibility to feed the parakeet.

Responsibility to: idioms

I am responsible for feeding the parakeet.

Responsible for: idioms

Sheep herding requires a shepherd to stay with his flock at all times.

Require ...to: idioms

I forbid you to interrupt me again

Forbid to: idioms

I can physically prohibit you from interrupting me again.

Prohibit ...from: idioms

She worried about where they would hide the loot.

Worry about: idioms

Convicted felons are not permitted to vote

Permit to: idioms

Please try to chew with your month closed at the awards dinner tonight.

try to: idioms

He has an ability to turn around a failing business

Ability ..to:idioms

I no longer believe the tooth fairy to be real

Believe ...to be: idioms

Many consider Henry Kissinger the greatest statesman of the twentieth century.

Consider : idioms

The sideshow barker estimated Henry to be a fool.

Estimate....to be :idioms

Some Republicans define welfare abuse as the primary evil in America.

Define as:idioms

Shakespeare is regarded as the greatest playwright of all time

Regard as :idioms

She thinks of me as just a friend

Think of ...as: idioms

My father sees a large investment portfolio as a sign of success

see as:idioms

noun, Not surprisingly, Donald Trump is a native of New York City

Native of: idioms

Okra is a native to Africa : Adjective

Native to: idioms

The lawnmower that you came to fix is in the garge. This is required information

That: idioms

The lawnmower, which is in the garge, is broken beyond repair. This is extraneous information.

Which: idioms

He does not bathe every day, as I do. IS used to compare noun/ verb combinations.

As: idioms

That car is just like one my father had. Is used when comparing only nouns.

like: idioms

Why must you act like a four-year old. is used to mean similar to

like: idioms

Many of the top desingers, such as Ralph Lauren and Donna Karan, have less expensive lines as well. Is used to mean for example

such as: idioms

Route 66 is a highway that runs from Chicago to Los Angeles.

From...to:idioms

Many theories in contemporary psychology are attributed to Freud.

Attribute...to:idioms

Benjamin Franklin is credited with the invention of the U.S Postal system.

Credit...with:idioms

Each of the schools he applied to had it own strengths. Is used when you want to emphasize that items are separate

Each:idioms

Both of the programs were highly regarded. All of the schools offer financial assistance. I sused when you wanto to emphasize that items are together or similar.

all or both: idioms

She was so blunt that many considered her rude.

so....that:idioms

Joe is so smart as to be intimidating.

so....as to be: idioms

A hypothesis that the aluminum in soda cans causes Alzheimer's disease is circulating on the Internet.

Hypothesis that: idioms

Many cigarette companies target their advertising at children.

Target .....at: idioms

Coefficient

The number 3 in front of the variable in an espression like 3xy is called

Consecutive

describes integers listed in ascending order, which are separated by the same interval. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 are consective integers and the numbers 2, 4, 6,8 are consecutive even integers.

decimals

are a way of expressing parts of a whole. To add or subtract just line up the decimal points. For multiplying/dividing decimals add up the total number of decimal places to the right of the decimal point in the numbers you multiplied and put the decimal point the smae number of digits over from the right, in your product.

difference

the result of subtraction

digit

are 0.1.2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9-the numbers you see on a telephone. GMAT math problems might ask you either to count digits or supply a missing digit. Try counting the digits in 2654.189. There are seven.

distinct

is simply a mathematial way of saying "different." So when you are asked to count the distinct prime factors of 12, you would answer that there are two 2 and 3. Even though 12=2x2x3, you can only count 2 once.

dividend

The number you are dividing another number into

divisible

When a number can be divided evenly by another number, it is said to be divisible by that number. So 6 is divisble by 3, but is not divisible by 4. The GMAT, however is more likely to ask you whether 728 is divisible by 4. ( Yes it is)

A # is divisible by 2 if

it ends in 0, 2, 4,6, or 8

A # is divisible by 3 if

adding its digits yields a number divisible by 3

A # is divisble by 4 if

The last two digits, considered as a number, are divisible by 4. Example, Take 728. The last two digits form the number 28, which is divisble by 4.

A # is divisble by 5 if

It ends in 5 or 0

A # is divisble by 6 if

It is divisible by both 2 and 3

A # is divisble by 7 if

There is no easy test, but in a pinch, you can divide by 2 and check whether or not the resulting number is divisble by 4

A # is divisble by 8 if

There is no easy test, but in a pinch, you can divide by 2 and check whether or not the resulting number is divisible by 4

A # is divisble by 9 if

Adding its digits results in a number that's a multiple of 9

Even number

number is one that can be divided evenly by 2. numbers are whole and they end in 2, 4,6,8, or 0. The number zero (0) is considered this.

Odd number

number is a whole number that, when divided by two yields a remainder of 1. these numbers end in 1, 3,5,7, or 9.

exponent

simply tells you to "multiply this number x times." So 2^3= 2x2x2 or 8. The number you multiply is called the base and the little superscript number that tells you how many times to multiply the base is called an exponent or a power. So in 3^2, 3 is the base and 2 is the power.

Any number to the 1 power is

itself 5^1=5

Any number to the 0 power is

1:5^0=1

Any positive number greater than 1, raised to the power greater than 1

becomes larger for example, 3^2=9

Any negative number raised to an even power becomes

positive-3^4=81

Any negative number raised to an odd power stays

negative -3^3=-27

Any fraction between 0 and 1 that's raised to a power greater than 1 gets

smaller, for example (1/2)^2=1/4

Negative exponents

When you see this just turn the base into a fraction by putting a 1 over it and proceed as you would with a nonnegative exponent so 3^-2=(1/3)^2=1/9

Fractional Exponents

are pretty much just another way of writing square roots

adding and subtracting exponents

to add and subtract exponents, both the base and the power must be the same. If they are, just add or subtract as you normally would. So, 3x^2+5x^2=8x^2

multiplying and dividing exponents

make sure that the bases are the same. To multiply, add the exponents and multiply the coefficients, and to divide, subtract the exponents and divide the coefficients, 3x^25x^3=15x^5 and 15x^6/3x^2=5x^4

factors

are numbers that can be divided into another number without leaving a remainder. For example, the numbers 1,2,3,4,6 and 12 are the factors of 12.

fractions

is the most basic expression of parts of a whole.For example. if a whole pizza has 8 slices and James eats 3, he has eaten 3/8 of the pizza.

numerator

the top number in a fraction

denominator

the bottom number in a fraction

reducing fractions

on the GMAT Fractions are expressed in their most reduced form. This means that you'll have to simply your anwers, for instance , by reducing fractions. To reduce a fraction, simply find a number that's a factor of both its numerator and denominator, and factor it out, like this.

35/49=5/7 x7/7=5/7x7/7=5/7x1=5/7 Redcuing a fraction makes it easier to work with, which makes it less likely that you'll commit an error. Common factors to start with when you're reducing are 2, 3, and 5.

35/49=5/7 x7/7=5/7x7/7=5/7x1=5/7 Redcuing a fraction makes it easier to work with, which makes it less likely that you'll commit an error. Common factors to start with when you're reducing are 2, 3, and 5.

adding/subtracting fractions

if you need to add or subtract two fractions that have the same denominator, simply add or subtract their numerators, like this: 3/4+1/4=4/4 or 1

If the numbers in the denominators are different, this opertation will invovle a couple of extra steps. The Bowtie is a simple way of adding and subtracting fractions like these: 5/8+3/5

To use the bowtie method, 1st multiply straight across the bottom of the fraction to find a common denominator. Then multiply top to bottom, top to bottom, like a bowtie. Finally, add or subtact to find the numerator.

If the numbers in the denominators are different, this opertation will invovle a couple of extra steps. The Bowtie is a simple way of adding and subtracting fractions like these: 5/8+3/5

To use the bowtie method, 1st multiply straight across the bottom of the fraction to find a common denominator. Then multiply top to bottom, top to bottom, like a bowtie. Finally, add or subtact to find the numerator.

multiplying and dividing fractions

When multiplying two or more fractions, just multiply their numerators and then their denominators. Dividing fractions works a lot like multiplying fractions, with one important extra step. To divide fractions, multiply the first by the reciprocal of the secong. So flip the secong fraction and multiply in the regular way.

Cross Multiplication

To slove an equation that contains two fractions containing variables when they're equal to each other, you can simply cross multiply or multiply the top of each fraction by the bottom of the other. 3x/4=3/2

(3x)(2)=(3)(4)=6x=12 x=2

(3x)(2)=(3)(4)=6x=12 x=2

Integer

is any whole number, positive, negative, or zero. So -3. 100. and 0 are all integers

multiple

the result of multiplying any number by any other number is called a multiple. The numbers 8, 16, and 424 are all multiples of 4.

order of operations

refers to just what it sounds like: the order in which mathematical operations are to be performed. Exponents, Multiplications, Division, Addition, and Subtraction

positive/negative numbers

any number greater than 0. So 1/4, 5000, but 0 is not. any number that's less than 0,-15, 0 is not

prime numbers

have exactly 2 distinct factors:1 and themselves. For example, 13 is prime b/c its only factor are 1 and 13. The number 1 is not prime; it has only one distinct factor

product

the result of multipication is called this

quotient

the result of division

reciprocal

the inverse of a number or fraction is the reciprocal. 5/8 is 8/5

remainder

is the number that's left over after division.The remainder when you diivide 35 by 8 is 3.

Square root

so 16=4 or -4 b/c both (4)^2 and (-4)^2=16 you cannot add these unless they have a common root. so 2+2=2 but 2+3 doesn't equal 5. To multiply and divide just treat them as regular integers: 6x3=18 or 3/2 basically they're subject to the same rules as exponents. x^1/2 is just X this

Sum

The result of addition is called this

whole number

is a number that does not have any fractional parts. the number 2 is a whole number but 2.5 is not

zero

is an integer, it's neither pos nor neg, and it's even mutiplying this always give you a product of 0 and dividing this is impossible

The 4 Step Approach

1. Read the Questions

2. Break it Down

3. Answer the Questions in your own words

4. Process of Elimination

2. Break it Down

3. Answer the Questions in your own words

4. Process of Elimination

Scope

the argument is dictated by the information given in the conclusion and the premises, by far the most common reason for eliminating answer choices in the arguments section

out of scope

When you see an answer choice that goes beyong the realm of the argument, you can consider it and eliminate it

opposite

When you're dealing with questions that ask you to weaken or strengthen the author's conclusion, be very wary of answer choices that while within the scope, do exactly the opposite of what you want, while it is the scope of the argument, it is the opposite of the anwer choice you want and you should eliminate it

extreme

extreme wording is another very common reason for eliminating anser choice in POE

strengthen

if the author proves his point by making an assumption, you'll include additional data to bolster the assumption....if the author cites a survey in support of his conclusion, you'll give evidence to prove the validity of the survey.etc...

assumption

evaluate how each answer choice contributes to the support of the conculsion

reasoning

willl focus more on describing the pattern of reasoning than in paraphasing the content of the argument, questions of this type may read: Which of the following indicates a flaw in the reasoning above?, Susan's attempt to counter Tim's claim is best characterized as...., Dan's response has which of the following relationships to Aliss'a argument?, The author makes his point chiefly by....

Percent

What is Percent of

X = (1/100) x

X = (1/100) x

percent change

difference/orginal

plugging in

replace all variables in the with numbers, read through the new problem and answer the question, plug your number into the answer choices and look for your number

Basic approach to data sufficiency

AD VS. BCE