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cultural universals

an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures

home erectus

extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brains (originated in africa)


the early phase of the stone age, lasting about 2.5 million years, when primitive stone impliments were used


the customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social group


(taming) the process whereby a population of animals or plants, through a process of selections, becomes accustomed to human provision and control


the belief in or worship of more than one (many) gods


system of government in which priests rule in the name of god

oracle bones

in ancient china, they were pieces of bone or turtle shell used by shang priests to tell the future. they would write questions addressed to either one of the gods or an ancestor of the cone


a member of a prehistoric people who established what was probably the first meso-american civilization

belief systems

an established orderly way that groups or individuals look at religious faith or philosophical tenets


a place or thing that forms the effective center of an activity, region, or network


relating to, or characteristic of a city or town

religious toleration

the condition of accepting or permitting others' religious beliefs and practices which agree with one's own


an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority; especially an emperor or empress


the act of buying and selling on a large scale


the idea that europe learns from south asia which helps them become dominant in Big Era 6


a primate of a group that includes humans, their fossil ancestors, and the great apes

homo sapiens

the primate species to which modern humans belong, humans regarded as a species


the later part of the stone age, when ground or polished stone weapons and implements prevailed

collective learning

the view that the human species has a unique capacity to accumulate and share complex knowledge and to transmit this knowledge from one generation to the next

fertile crescent

a crescent- shaped area of fertile land in the middle east that extends from the eastern mediterranean coast through the valley of the tigris and euphrates rivers to the persian gulf. center of neolithic development of agriculture and the cradle of the assyrian, sumerian, and babylonian civilizations

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