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Chapter 1 - What is Programming
Terms in this set (80)
Traditionally, the introductory courses in computer science focus on
What is a program
A sequence of instructions, which enables a computer to perform a desired task.
What is a programmer?
A person who writes a program for a computer.
What was required to program the ENIAC?
Rewriting the machine, had thousands of wires
What was required to simply enter numbers into the Mark-I calculator?
Had to manipulate 1,440 switches to work.
What is another word for Machine Language?
What does programming in Machine Language mean?
Directly manipulating the wires of the machine.
What computer first introduced Assembly Language?
First introduced with the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer)
Refer to your answer to the previous question. What was the name of the assembler in that computer?
Called Initial Orders
Who is credited with making the term debugging popular and also wrote the first compiler?
Grace Hopper's immeasurable contributions to computer science have earned her the nickname
List 2 Low-Level Languages.
Machine Language and Assembly Language
Refer to your answer to the previous question. Why are these languages considered "low-level?"
They function at the level of 1s and 0s, has more control but is harder to learn
Describe a High-Level Language.
Set of specific commands, have very exact meanings and purposes, easier to learn, less control
Describe a Very-High-Level Language.
Don't use words, use pictures that are clicked and dragged to program.
What does a computer translator do?
Translates a high-level language into low-level machine code.
How does a compiler translate?
Translates program into an executable file BEFORE execution.
How does an interpreter translate?
One statement at a time DURING execution
What was the first successful programming language?
FORTRAN was designed for which groups of people?
Scientists, mathematicians, and engineers.
LISP is known for being one of the languages specifically designed to help develop _______ _______.
COBOL was designed for which group of people?
People who did business.
Who was the primary designer of COBOL?
After IBM standardized hardware with _____the IBM System/360________, they set out to standardize software as well by
PL/I was created by combining all of the features of which 2 languages?
FORTRAN and COBOL
The intention was that PL/I would be "everything for everyone". The reality was this language was not popular. Explain why.
People did not like the features of the opposing side, ex FORTRAN people didn't like the COBOL features.
Why did Tom Kurtz and John Kemeny create BASIC?
Too make a simple, basic easy-to-learn language.
Explain why the use of BASIC become widespread when personal computers came out in 1976.
Most computers could not handle anything bigger than BASIC
Why did a number of college professors did not like BASIC?
BASIC didn't teach proper programming structure, it taught quick-and-dirty programming
Niklaus Wirth created the language Pascal specifically for the purpose of
How is Pascal different from PL/I?
It was very lean, and contained just enough features to be functional.
What was BCPL originally intended for?
Intended for writing compilers.
In 1969, a slimmed down version of BCPL was released. It was simply called B.
In 1972, an improved version of B was released. What was that language called?
The language was called C
What does OOP stand for?
Object Oriented Programming
In 1983, Bjarne Stroustrup created a new language by combining C with OOP.
What was that language called?
It was called C++
What is the first Platform Independent language?
JAVA was the first platform independent language.
What does "Platform Independence" mean?
A program made on one computer would work the exact same way on any computer.
What is the major difference between Java and C++?
With JAVA you had to use OOP.
In 1998, the Lego Corporation created their first point-and-click language for use with their Lego Mindstorms robots. In 2006, they released their next language. What was that language called?
It was called NXT
Were early personal computers networked?
Early PCs were NOT networked.
What is Sneaker Net?
When you have to get up and "put on your sneakers" and walk from computer to computer to share files or print files.
The first practical networks for personal computers were called what?
Peer-to-peer networks or LAN
What is a peer-to-peer network?
A small group of computers with one common purpose, very small.
What does LAN stand for?
Local Area Networks
What is a server?
A specialty computer that is connected to a LAN for one or more purposes. Used for printing, logon authentications, permanent data storage and communication.
The Internet came about during what period in our history?
The "Cold War"
Where in the Internet is the central location where all the control computers are located?
The Internet does not have a central location where all control computers are located.
Normally, businesses and schools have a series of LANs that all connect into a large network called what?
A large network called an Intranet
What does ISP stand for?
Internet Service Provider
Wireless connections are convenient, but there are some problems. List 2 of them.
Much easier to hack than a cable, and there are areas where the signal can be weak.
A program is a sequence of instructions that makes a computer perform a desired task.
A programmer is a person who writes a program for a computer.
Directly manipulating the 1s and 0s of the computer's binary language.
A.K.A. EDSAC, used single-letter mnemonic symbols to represent different series of bits. Still tedious.
She wrote the first complier in 1952 for the language A-0, paved the way for the other languages that followed.
Languages that fully function and are close to 1s and 0s, very powerful
High Level Languages
Uses English like words as instructions. Easier but less powerful.
Very High Level Languages
Languages that use clickable pictures as instructions.
Translates a high-level language into low-level machine code.
Translates the entire program into an executable file before execution.
Translates one program statement at a time during executions.
(1957) The first successful high-level programming language. FORmula TRANslation. Did math.
LISt Processing was designed by John McCarthy. Know to help develop artificial intelligence.
Created for the business community and the armed forces. Stands for COmmon Business Oriented Language. It became extremely successful in the Department of Defense.
In the 1960s computer design was not yet standardized and was strongly influenced by programmers' languages of choice. IMB made the System/360 family of computers and was suitable for both FORTRAN and COLBOL.
Programming Language 1, this language combined all of the number crunching features of FORTRAN with all of the record handing features of COBOL. Was supposed to be for everyone. People didn't like it. ):
Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, Intended to give non-math and non-science majors the ability to use computers.
Altair was the first PC.
College professors didn't like basic so they made a new one, PASCAL. Called quick-and-dirty programming.
Very lean language, enough FORTRAN and COBOL to be functional.
In 1966 BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) was made by Martin Richards, written to help running compilers. It kept things running. Used to rewrite the kernel for the UNIX operating system.
As computer programs grew more complex a new, more powerful, and more reliable type of programming was needed. This lead to the development of Object Oriented Programming (OOP). Replaced pascal as the official language of programming.
C and C++ are sometimes considered to be medium-level languages. This is because they have English commands but are very powerful.
Platform Independent language. Does not cause problems as programs are transported between different hardware and software platforms, requires OOP to work.
Lego Mindstorm NXT
Programming that is VERY high level. The programmers can click on different blocks. Each block performs a different task. You can program by creating a sequence of these blocks.
Early computers were not networked, called stand-alone, many didn't even have printers. Most "networking" was walking from computer to computer.
First practical networks for PCs, small groups of computers with a common purpose, called LANs (Local Area Network), all computers in the network was equal.
A special computer that is connected to the LAN for one or more purposes. Can be used to print, logon authentications, and permanent data storage.
Computers in a server network.
The Internet has existed since the 1960s and has its origins in the "Cold War." A means of communication had to be created that was capable regardless of damage created anywhere. Has no central location where all of the control computers are located. Any part of the internet can be damaged and all information will then travel around the damaged area.
(Internet Service Provider)
Something that lets you get on to the internet. Pay a monthly fee for the speed of your internet connection.
Businesses and schools have a series of LANs that all connect into a large network called an Intranet. It's faster, more secure, and cheaper to have an Intranet.
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