Includes art and architecture from England, Germany, France, The United States covering Rococo period, Neoclassicism and 18th century Enlightenment

A. Antoine Watteau, L'Indifférent, ca. 1716. Oil on canvas, approx. 10" x 7". Louvre, Paris (Rococo).

Also known as the Casual Lover, this painting portrays a young actor, shown in the theme of fetes galantes, a style of charm and theatricality. However, in contrast, Watteau's paintings generally convey a sober theme of the futility of life, and appeal to the sensibilities of the modern era. This can be scene in the facial expression of the young man, but is more apparent in Watteau's more popular works. He was a transitional artist between the Baroque and Rococo eras, but was nonetheless inspired by Rubens.

B. Antoine Watteau, Return from Cythera, 1717-1719. Oil on canvas, approx. 4' 3" x 6' 4". Louvre, Paris. (Rococo)

Return from Cythera is an oil on canvas painting by Antoine Watteau, which became a forerunner for a genre of painting known as fete galante. In the painting, we see many couples preparing to leave the island of Cythera; cupids can be seen flying around and allusions to classical art can be seen in the statues. Because Watteau was a Rubeniste, his works, such as this one, emphasizes color over lines and form, and so we can examine a painterly style in his artworks. Watteau's art marked the beginning of the Rococo period of art, which emphasized the frivolity and playfulness in the life of nobles.

W. Germain Boffrand, Salon de la Princesse, with painting by Natoire and sculpture by J. B. Lemoine, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, 1737-1740(Rococo)

Rococo architecture rejects straight lines in favour of cruved forms and heightened decorative effects including wall and ceiling painting as welll as gilding. chandeliers, wood carvings. The salon in oval in design and the accent motif is of shells ("rocaille" in French and the source of the term "rococo.")

Y. Francois de Cuvillies, The Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace Park, Munich, Germany (Rococo).

The Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace Park located in Munich, Germany is a Rococo style architecture created by Francois de Cuvillies in 1734-39. The Amalienburg is a highly nature influenced building with elaborate ornamental details, furniture, interior design and very light pastel colors, which reflected the happy uneventful time period. Throughout the stucco work, woodcarvings, and paintings, motifs of scrolls, shells, plants, intricate patterns and delicate details can be found. Karl Albercht commissioner of the Amalienburg hired prime stucco plasterer Zimmerman to create this complex, asymmetrical building for his wife, Maria Amalia.

E. Francois Boucher, Cupid a Captive, 1754. Oil on canvas, approx. 5' 6" x 2' 10", Wallace Collection, London (Rococo).

This painting is called Cupid a Captive by Francois Boucher and is from the Rococo Period. The genre is myth and has pagan figures with nude women. Boucher is known for his paintings of nymphs and goddesses and depicts several pastel colors in this work which corresponds to the Rococo style. Boucher used italian and French Baroque techniques and styles. The body's are curved and twisted in positions and uses crosscross diagonals and pyramidal structure. The subject matter has a sense of playfulness and sensuality.

G. Jean-Honore Fragonard, The Swing, 1766. Oil on canvas, approx. 35" x 32" (Rococo).

This is a Rococo painting. Fragonard painted this for a wealthy patron who wanted to keep this in his private collection for decoration. The patron is the man on the bottom left of the picture. Rococo attributes can be seen in the bright colors, the painterly brushwork, and the light hearted subject matter. There is an emphasize on clothing in how the women's dress is so bright and detailed. Cherubs, common figures in Rococo, can be seen around the figures. The pastoral background and lush vegetation is an influence from Antoine Watteau's Fête galante style and the light, pastel colors are an influence from François Boucher.

P. William Hunter, Child in Womb, drawing from dissection of a woman who died in the ninth month of pregnancy, from Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus, 1774.

Child in Womb was a drawing from a dissection of a woman who died during her ninth month of pregnancy. William Hunter was a Scottish anatomist and physician who connected his teachings of anatomy with the artistic world. Hunter's drawings were inspired by Leonardo da Vinci's sketches of the womb. This drawing was a part of many in Hunter's collection of anatomy engravings/drawings. It depicted the most realistic image of a woman's womb during the Enlightenment, which sought to enhance people's thinking about science and realistic possibilities.

M. Joseph Wright of Derby, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery (in which a lamp is put in place of the sun), ca. 1763-1765. Oil on canvas, 4'10" x 6'8". Derby Museums and Art Gallery, Derby, England. (Enlightenment).

A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery is a painting done by Joseph Wright of Derby. Working during the Enlightenment and considered a precursor to Neoclassicism, Wright believed the wonders of the technological age were as remarkable as religious events. An orrery is a device that shows the heliocentric planetary system. The painting depicts a philosopher giving a lecture to students about the solar system. The light and shadow of the faces of the figures depict the changing phases of the moon, all in order. The lighting allows there to be an impression of movement from flickering light.

R. Abraham Darby III and Thomas E. Pritchard, R. Iron bridge at Coalbrookdale, England (first cast-iron bridge over the Severn River), 1776-1779. 100' span (Englightenment).

The Iron Bridge is the first iron bridge to ever be built and crosses the River Severn. The design was first proposed by Thomas Pritchard in 1773 and completed by Abraham Darby in 1779. Since an iron bridge was unprecedented, the bridge was built with carpentry techniques. Each member had to be cast separately and by the time the bridge was finally finished, there was a total of 800 castings of 12 different designs. The castings were put together using techniques such as mortise and tenon and blind dovetail joints. The Iron Bridge became a symbol of the Industrial Revolution.

D. Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin, Grace at Table, 1740. Oil on canvas, 1' 7" x 1' 3". Louvre, Paris (18th century France)

Grace at Table, or Le Benedicite, was painted by French artist Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin, who made numerous versions of the same painting. The subject of this is of the bougeouis and tranquility. The painting depicts a middle-class scene, in which a mother is giving a meal to her children. She instructs them to say grace before eating. The atmosphere is peaceful and subdued, and the lighting is muted. Stability is made by the triangular structure of the three figures. Chardin, in contrast to artist Watteau who painted aristocratic life, chose to paint everyday middle-class scenes and people.

I. Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun, Self-Portrait, 1790. Oil on canvas, 8' 4" x 6' 9". Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (18th century France - Royal Painter).

Self-Portrait is a Rococo painting done by Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun. Lebrun is considered the most important female painters of the 18th century, serving as court painter for Marie Antoinette before the French Revolution. In the portrait, Lebrun depicts herself at the easel with brushes and palette in hand. The unfinished subject of the depicted painting resembles one of Marie Antoinette. This depiction not only underscores her skill as a painter, but it associates her with the royal family. Lebrun's association with Marie Antoinette, the icon of splendor, places her in the Rococo tradition.

K. William Hogarth, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1745. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 4" x 3', National Gallery, London

The second of six in a serially- planned story cycle, this eighteenth century English work is a moralistic warning against marriage for wealth and satirizes patronage and aesthetics. The couple, a son of the broke Earl Squanderfield, and the daughter of a rich merchant, sit down to breakfast in the afternoon. The house in disarray portrays their crumbling marriage, such as the woman's cap in the Viscount's pocket, the broken sword symbolizing impotency, the syphilis patch on the Viscount's neck, the portrait of cupid standing among ruins, the servant leaving with a stack of bills, the wife sitting with her legs sprawled and a wet patch in front, signaling to her lover with a mirror, and the overturned chair indicating discordance.

S. Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lord Heathfield, 1787. Oil on canvas, approx. 4' 8" x 3' 9", National Gallery, London (18th century England - Grand Manner portraiture)

This is a portrait of George Augustus Elliot, 1st Lord of Heathfield. He is famous for holding the British Fort at the Strait of Gibraltar. This was commissioned by a newspaper to profit from Elliot's fame. This is a Grand Manner portrait, a field Reynolds was known for, because it creates a life size image of the subject, making them look larger due to a low horizon line, and surrounding them with visual metaphors to promote the figure's status. A metaphor can be seen in the key in his hand, symbolizing the key to Gibraltar and how it is tied to him.

O. Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1771. Oil on canvas, approx. 5' x 7'. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa (gift of the Duke of Westminster, 1918).

This is a history painting that depicts the death of British General Wolfe during the Battle of Quebec in the Seven Years War. It uses a pyramidal composition with the flag as the apex. There is dramatic use of tenebrism to highlight the importance of the event. The figure of General Wolfe is positioned in a way that is reminiscent of Christ in the lamentation artworks popular in the Baroque period. Several of the figures depicted along with Wolfe were not actually present, including a native American whose contraposto position recalls classical statuary, a nod to the popular idea of the "noble savage" depicted in many of West's works. Overall, this work is highly idealized. It caused controversy (especially by Sir Joshua Reynolds) because the figures were clothed in contemporary dress, rather than classical drapery, as was traditional for history paintings. However, it was popular with the public, so Reynolds (and the king) eventually accepted the work.

N. John Singleton Copley, Portrait of Paul Revere, ca. 1768-1770. Oil on canvas, 2' 11" x 2' 41/2". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (gift of Joseph W., William B., and Edward H. R. Revere)

This portrait of Paul Revere is distinctly American, and very different from Grand Manner portraiture. Revere is painted in a plain setting, working his everyday profession of silversmith, rather than being depicted in extravagant formal dress. This informality does link it to contemporaneous European portraiture, but the spare and unadorned style also make it distinctly colonial.

ZB. Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, or Mother of the Gracchi, ca. 1785. Oil on canvas, 3' 4" x 4' 2". Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond (the A. D. and W. C. Williams Fund). (Neo-Classicism - exemplum virtutis).

Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, is a Neoclassicist work by Angelica Kauffman. Since it was common of men to give their wives jewels, Cornelia's friend asks her where her jewels were. Instead, she points to her sons, Gaius and Tiberius, future political leaders of the Roman Republic in the 2nd century. This painting is an exemplum virtutis (model or example of virtue) as Cornelia embodies selfless motherly love. The tiles on the floor suggesting linear perspective, typical of Neoclassical works. The background is decidedly Roman rather than the frivolous countryside of Rococo works.

ZC. Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas, approx. 11' x 14'. Louvre, Paris

This neoclassical painting uses Grand Manner style, which is linear and idealistic in physical features. The three Horatii sons salute their father who holds their swords as they prepare to protect Rome from the Curiatii of Alba Longa. The composition is theatrical and the stoicism and rigid stances of the sons prove Rome's unwavering backbone. Here, the women are more curved and free to lament their sorrow to contrast and heighten the men's stoicism. The figures are dressed in classicizing robes with roman arches in the back. Neoclassical works emphasize personal sacrifice for the nation and exemplum virtutis of the figures' virtue and courage. Though only one of the three sons will live, since two of them receive curved instead of straight swords, they are prepared to die for Rome. This is commissioned by King Louis XVI of France as an allegory of loyalty to the state, and became a popular image during the French Revolution.

ZF. Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Marat, 1793. Oil on canvas, approx. 5' 3" x 4' 1". Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels (Neo-Classicism).

This is a neoclassical painting. The subject is the murder of French Revolutionary leader Jean Marat. It contains linear brushwork, balanced composition, and an idealized figure. The figure is in a tub due to a skin condition he had but due to the idealization, the picture does not contain it. The figure looks very peaceful and almost has a smile, showing him as a martyr. Michelangelo's Pieta influenced the body composition by the elongated arm and Caravaggio influenced it by the use of dramatic light and dark.

ZG. Jacques-Louis David, The Coronation of Napoleon, 1805-1808. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris

This neoclassical painting depicts Napoleon's lavish 1804 coronation. David painted this as First Painter of the Empire, after he had been tried and imprisoned for supporting the revolution. This monumental work served both the aims of the artist and the patron. It demonstrated David's talent, who included himself in one of the tribunes for spectators. It also asserted Napoleon's authority by depicting him about to crown the Empress after already crowning himself - the pope, though present, was excluded from crowning anyone. The work is Neoclassical in the figures' stage-like arrangement and their division into two polarities - church and state.

ZH. Antonio Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1808. Marble, life size. Galleria Borghese, Rome.

Pauline Bonaparte as Venus Victrix, a Neoclassical portrait sculpture in white marble, was made by Canova in the nineteenth century and depicts Napoleon's sister reclining on a divan and holding the golden apple symbolizing Venus's triumph in the judgment of Paris. It was commissioned by Camillo Borghese but was later banned because Pauline got herself into scandals and Napoleon did not want his name to be tarnished. The work demonstrates the sensuous S-curve, wet drapery, idealization, and nude torso characteristic of the Neoclassical style. Antonio Canova's works generally hearken back to classical traditions and thus were influenced by Praxiteles and Polykleitos.

J. Richard Boyle and William Kent, Chiswick House, near London, begun 1725

Chiswick House was built to showcase the Ear of Burlington's collection of artworks. Influence can be seen from Palladio's Villa Rotunda. The villa is symmetrically balanced. The gardens of Chiswick House inaugurated the English Landscape Movement, which focuses on presenting an idealized view of nature. Classical influence can be seen in the work because it incorporates: a portico, steeped pitch dome, façade, and Tuscan and Corinthian columns. Statues can be seen all around the house and many pediments can be seen over windows. The rooms of the house are abundantly decorated with luxurious colors.

Q. John Wood the Younger, The Royal Crescent, Bath, England, 1769-1775.

The Royal Crescent, located in Bath, England is a Georgian (1767-1774) bath stone structure created by architect John Wood the Older and Younger. The Crescent is a curved residential building which includes 30 houses, each individually designed by its tenant. Contrary to the rear, the facade portrays Georgian characteristics with its symmetry, decorative elements, and classical influences. The frontal, rigid design was also influenced by the Renaissance with its embedded ionic columns, rusticated ground floor and entablature. Due to their Masonic influences, the Woods constructed the shape of the Crescent and the Circus to resemble the sun and the moon

ZO. Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, VI (Neo-Classical Architecture).

Thomas Jefferson designed this structure as his private home. It is Neoclassical and reflects the ideas of Palladio, an Italian Renaissance architect. The building is made of brick, which lends a sense of solidity. There is a lot of emphasis on symmetry, carried out through the use of lots of classical columns. It is similar to Chiswick House in London. Monticello has a pediment with a large octagonal dome behind it. The dome has fenestration around it, and inside there is a small apartment, which was not used for practical reasons of it being hard to access and being exposed to both heat and cold.

ZP. Benjamin Latrobe, Capitol Building, Washington, DC

This American Neoclassicist structure was designed by William Thorton in the 18th century for a contest but later revised by Benjamin Latrobe. The Capitol Building, located in Washington D.C., demonstrates classical traditions such as symmetry, a dome and rotunda, Roman columns, and an elaborate façade. Architectural neoclassicism was influenced by Andrea Palladio and was a reaction against the Rococo style. Baron Karl von Schachmann mentored Latrobe, who brought British Neoclassicism to America and combined it with styles introduced by Thomas Jefferson. The throwback to Greek and Roman styles was directly linked to ideals of democracy.

ZJ. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, The Apotheosis of Homer. 1827. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France

Ingres's Neoclassical painting, The Apotheosis of Homer, depicts the crowning of Homer and his receiving homage from great men such as Plato, Socrates, Dante, and Moliére. It features characteristic classical features such as symmetry, idealization of faces, drapery, and contrapposto stances. Linear perspective and overlapping serve to create the illusion of depth, and there is an emphasis on lines and contours which is characteristic of Ingres's works. This meticulously detailed work was commissioned by Charles X in the 19th century to have himself remembered. Ingres was influenced by Nicolas Poussin. Ingres's works contrasted from the Romantic traditions of its time.

ZK. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Le Grande Odalisque. 1814. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France (Neo-Classicism).

The Grand Odalisque is a 19th century oil on canvas French transition work from Neoclassicism to Romanticism. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres' ponssiniste technique and cool color scheme highlights his popular female nudes where he anatomically distorts their bodies allowing them to reclining in impossible positions. Her small head and elongated limbs allude to Mannerist painters Parmigianino, Titian, and Giorgione. Commissioned Napoleon's sister, her distorted body fills the composition as she stares back with an aloof expression. The peacock fan, turban, enormous pearls, and hookah present the western ideal of a harem and intensify the sensuous female beauty by elongating her pelvic area.

T. Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, ca. 1785. Oil on canvas, approx. 7' 2" x 5'. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Andrew W. Mellon Collection). (18th century England - Grand Manner portraiture)

This 18th century English painting made by Gainsborough depicts Elizabeth Linley seated on a rock on the hillside like a muse of nature. Everything is painterly except for her face. Her serious yet serene face with her tousled hair convey her as someone with a fanatic heart not happily confined to the drawing room. The pastoral painting represents her love for the outside world.

L. Thomas Gainsborough, Robert Andrews and His Wife Frances. About 1748-49. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK

Grand Manner portrait of an English landed gentry couple. The composition is unique as the couple are shown in casual poses on the left while their property is showcases on the right. The oak tree behind the couple is sometimes considered a symbol of the strength and constancy of British society as represented by this marriage.

H. Clodion, Nymph and Satyr, ca. 1775. Terracotta, approx. 23" high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (bequest of Benjamin Altman, 1913). (Rococo).

Inspired by Greek and Roman sculpture, this piece holds more emotion and fluidity than its predecessors, in a very stereotypical Rococo fashion. Both persons in the embrace lean towards one another, portraying a scene of passion rather than one of tension seen in other works. Clodion was extraordinarily popular during his lifetime and was coveted by most royal courts. His livelihood was based upon his creation of small terracotta statues for private display.

ZI. Canova, Antonio, Cupid and Psyche, 1787-1793, marble, Louvre, Paris.

Antonio Canova's statue Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss, first commissioned in 1787, exemplifies the Neoclassical devotion to love, tenderness and emotion. The statue is inspired by a painting found at the Herculeum. The scene show is when Cupid revives Psyches lifeless for with a kiss. The myth was that Cupid had instructed Psyche not to look upon him for it would blind her. One night while Cupid was asleep Psyche looked upon his sleeping body and was caught and punished by Aphrodite. Then cupid revives his mortal love with a kiss. Carracci used the marbles smooth rhythmic lines to exploit the marbles sensitivity to chiaroscuro.

U. Canaletto, Basin of San Marco from San Giorgio Maggiore, ca. 1740. Oil on canvas. Wallace Collection, London (pictorial souvenir).

This 18th century Italian painting made by Canaletto is a verdute painting of Venice. It depicts the appreciation of nature and the minute detail of human life. Canaletto used atmospheric perspective and strong local colors, as a prelude to Impressionism. This painting exudes a sense of thought and knowledge, for it does not have any underlying meanings. Canaletto made many of these paintings for European monarchs. Canaletto first painted these on the spot, but later he used camera obscura.

V. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Apotheosis of the Pisani Family, ceiling fresco in the villa Pisani, Stra, Italy, 1761-1762 (Late Baroque)

Tiepolo kept the Baroque tradition of illusionistic celing painting alive which uses the techniques of di sotto in su and foreshortening. The ceiling fresco is conceived as a trompe-l'oeil opening onto a silvery-blue sky, whose endless depths are defined by various towering cloud formations. The composition consists of two sections which exist independently of one another: the portrayal of the Pisani family and various allegorical figures in the lower portion, and the Continents in the upper portion. The figure of Fame, sounding her trumpets in either direction, connects the two. Below her, Divine Wisdom is enthroned and reigns over a harmonious empire. The Virtues Faith, Justice, Love, Hope and Strength appear at her feet. (WGA)

Z. Balthasar Neumann, Interior of the pilgrimage chapel of Vierzehnheiligen, near Staffelstein, Germany, 1743-1772 (Late Baroque).

This Rococo pilgrimage chapel commemorates the hilltop on which a shepherd boy had a miraculous vision of the Fourteen Saints known as the Helpers in Need. Neumann, a designer of churches, constructed the interior as a combination of painting, sculpture, and architecture. There are no straight lines, as curves and oval shapes intertwine throughout the building. The marble piers and ceiling frescoes are painted with soft pastel colors accented with gold to emphasize the church's airy volumes. The freestanding Altar of Mercy takes up a central position within the nave.

ZA. Jean-Antoine Houdon, Seated Voltaire, circa 1779-1795, Sculpture, Plaster, with vestiges of paint and terracotta slip, with metal supports; on modern painted wood base, Sculpture: 52 1/2 x 35 1/2 x 33 in. (133.35 x 90.17 x 83.82 cm)

A Neoclassical and Enlightenment sculpture, the original uses marble (Neoclassicists believed marble reconnects to the traditions of the ancient world). Sculpture shows Voltaire, sitting in his night gown. The original sculpture was commissioned by Voltaire's niece Madame Denis after viewing the sketch in Houdon's studio. Because the model was popular, Houdon made many replicas based on it (even a bronze-gilt one in the collection of Catherine the Great). The sculpture is very naturalistic, evident from Voltaire's old, tired face and body proportion. Houdon achieves this through drilling and undercutting. Houdon's style is influenced from Roman Republic's portrait busts (veristic attributes).

F. Jean-Baptiste Greuze, The Village Bride, 1761. Oil on canvas, 3' x 3' 101/2". Louvre, Paris (moralizing narrative).

This French genre painting was made during the Rococo period by Greuze. It depicts a loving couple accepting the dowry from the man's father in the midst of family. This painting appealed to the bourgeoisie because it depicting marriage out of love, rather than money. The painting is divided into a male sphere and female sphere. Greuze uses a pyramidal structure taught at the Academy. Greuze did not use pastel colors, contrary to the Rococo period. Denis Diderot praised the moral value of the painting.

ZD. Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Tennis Court, 1791. Graphite, ink, sepia, heightened with white on paper, 65 cm x 105 cm. Musée national du Château de Versailles, France

Sketch (cartoon) for what would have been a grand scale artwork commemorating the pledge made by the Third Estate (bourgeoisie and freed peasants) in 1789. The Third Estate was barred from a meeting of the Estates-General and the oath represented the first organized opposition to Louis XVI. David uses the thrust of the figures to guide the idea to the central grouping; the flying curtains against the neutral background also conveys the dramatic nature of the event.

ZL. Jacques-Germain Soufflot, The Panthéon (Sainte-Geneviève), Paris, 1755-1792 (Neoclassical Architecture)

Originally a basilica built in 507 during the reign of the medieval king, Clovis then a church dedicated to Sainte-Genevieve, patron saint of Paris, by Louis XV when he recovered from illness. Some stories suggest he promised Mme Pompadour, his mistress.
National crypt for famous French figures
Changed from Church to burial grounds at the beginning of the French Revolution. It is now a civic temple.

ZM. Pierre Vignon, La Madeleine, Paris, 1807-1842 (Neoclassical Architecture)

Roman Catholic Church built as a temple to the glory of Napoleon's army. The facade is based on the Parthenon using a peristyle structure, sculpted pediments (The Last Judgment), a raised stylobate. The recessed portico and the closed sided decorated with embedded Corinthian columns comes directly from the Maison Carree (Roman temple) in Nimes.

ZN. Robert Adam, Etruscan Room, Osterley Park House, Middlesex, England, begun 1761. By courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London

X. François de Cuvilliés, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace Park, Munich, early eighteenth century

Rounded salon room of the Amalienberg Palace displays the standard characteristic of the Rococo: gilding, rounded forms, and expansive use of wall and celiling decoration with coordinated furnishings. The mirrors are designed to reflect the exterior landscaping bringing the natural world into the domestic.

ZE, Jacques Louis-David, Antoine Lavoisier and Wife, 1788. Oil on canvas, approx. 100'' x 77''. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

This painting depicts Lavoisier, a chemist and tax collector, and his wife in an extremely posed arrangement, characteristic of the Neoclassical period. Lavoisier's wife, who drew all of his experiments, was thought to have studied under David. The full length-ness of the portrait, as well as the arrested spontaneous state, is more characteristic of British portraiture of the time, but the fashionable clothing is characteristically French. The neo-classicism is also evident in the relief column in the background. This was one of the most expensive portraits ever commissioned at 7,000 livres.

C. Jean Siméon Chardin, Soap Bubbles, oil on canvas, 1733, Metropolitan Museum of Art

This Chardin painting is an Oil on canvas that takes strong influence from 17th century Dutch genre paintings. The main theme present in this painting is the idle play of children. The paintings depicts children at play blowing soap bubbles, something he paints quite often. Soap bubbles during this time are thought to represent the transcience of life. There is a great deal of naturalism present in this artwork, and it does not fit in with most of the other works. Chardin was admitted to the French Royal Academy in 1728 for his work with still life painting, which may explain his great sense of detail and naturalism

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set