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52 terms

animal anatomy and physiology

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glaucoma
increase in aqueous humor, its on the cornea, too much pressure in the eye
cataracts
is on the lens and it appears cloudy
sound
cranial nerve 8
vision
cranial nerve 2
typmpanic membrane
middle ear
eustacian tube
connects tympanic bulla to the pharynx
vitreous humor
gelatinous body behind the lens
anterior chamber
area in front of iris
posterior chamber
area behind iris
iop
intra ocular pressure
tapetum
aera where animals with no pigment , glows at nigth
rods
need to see light
cons
need to see color/detail
optic disc
where the optic never links the eye to the brain
fundus
back of the eye where the retina and optic nerve can be seen
ophthalmoscope
looking into the back of the eye
palpebra
eyelids
3rd eyelid
nictitating membrane
peripheral nervous system
nerves extending from the spinal cord and brain to other parts of the body like muscles, intestines and the skin
autonomic nervous system
nerves going to various organs
neuron
basic until of the nervous system or
nerve cell body
contains nucleus and cytoplasma
dendrites
sensory projections which carry information to the nerve cell body
axon
carries impulses away from the cell body to other neurons or other target tissue
synapse
junction between neurons where they can communicate with each other using electrical umpulses
neurotransmitters
chemicals that help to conduct information between synapse
myelin
is fatty covering on the outside of nerves to help speed up the transmission of signals
gray matter
does not have myelin, on outside
white matter
does have myelin, on the inside
cerebrum
largest portion of the forebrain, important in thinking, sight, smell, and muscle control
gyri, sulci
ridges and depressions on the outside of the cerebrum
ventricles
contains cerebro-spinal fluid
hydrocephalus
condition where the venticles can not connect with each other and allow fluid to circulate , water on the brain
midbrain
white matter which serves as nerve pathways between the verebrum and other areas of the nervous system
hindbrain
consists of the cerebellum
medulla oblongata
contains reflex centers for respiration and circulatory control
meninges
thick membrane which cover the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
white matter on the outside and grey matter on the inside
white matter 2
usually functions as connection tracts and pathways between neurons and brain center
grey matter 2
consists of neuronal cell bodies which are the brains of the neves
dorsal roots
receive input from sensory nerves
ventral roots
sends out signals to control motor functions
plexuses
formed from groups of nerves that join together to do a common factor after they have left the spinal cord
brachial plexus
formed from some of the cervical and thoracic nerves to help to innervate the muscles of the forelimbs
lumbosacral plexus
is made from nerves from the lumbar and sacral areas to innervate the pelvi limbs
caudo equina
narrow area resembles the end of a horse's tail
cranial nerve 1
olfactory nerve, smelling
cranial nerve 8
facial nerve have sensory and motor function
cranial nerve 10
vagus nerve, sensory and motor function to the larynx
sympathetic
some nerves from the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and is regulated by epinephrine
parasympathetic system
neurotransmitters which regulates acetylcholine
reflex arch
afferent neuron and efferent neuron