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440 terms

AP World History Terms

Garrison Spring Semester 2012
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lateen sail
Triangular sail developed by Arab or Indian merchants which was eventually adopted by Euroop, a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Adopted in the Late Middle Ages, and Europeans were able to sail out of the Mediterranean
astrolabe
Navigational instrument that helped to determine latitude by using the position of the sun
volta do mar
"Returning through the sea," a fifteenth-century Portuguese sea route that took advantage of the prevailing winds and currents.
Prince Henry "The Navigator"
Member of the royal family of Portugal in the 15th century who sponsored a series of voyages along the west coast of Africa. These journeys eventually led to the success of Bartholomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama who rounded the southern tip of Africa in the late 1400's
Sao Jorge de Mina
Location of fortified Portuguese trading posts in modern Ghana. Exchanged horses, leather, textiles, and metal wares for gold and slaves
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1488. Never made it to the Indian Ocean
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa and made his way to India where he traded for spices. Began the Portuguese dominance of the spice trade.
Cristoforo Colombo
Christopher Colombus, began the Colombian exchange.
Martin Beaim
German cartographer who is believed to have created the earliest surviving globe in 1492.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese (Sailed for Spain on the trip around the world). Died in the Philippines but his crew made it all the way around the world.
northwest passage
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
Francis Drake
British sea captain who raided Spanish ships and ports as privateer and scouted the west coast of North America in conjunction with his attacks on Spanish interests in Latin America
James Cook
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)
Afonso d'Alboquerque
Commander of Portuguese forces in the Indian Ocean (16th century). Seized several strategic islands (Hormuz, Goa, and Melaka) and forced passing ships to have a pass from Portugal or have their cargo confiscated. Violators were executed or de-handed. Portugal eventually lost its tight hold on the Indian Ocean basin. (even when it was strong, it didn't have enough vessels to strictly enforce its laws—other civilizations were still prominent in trade)
Goa
Portuguese base on the west coast of India from which they aided Hindus and trade with the interior.
Melaka
A thriving spice trade port on the Malay Peninsula controlled by the Portuguese
joint-stock company
An association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business
Lopez de Legazpi
Took over the Philippeans with little bloodshed because other Asian areas resisted; only the Muslims in this country resisted
Mindanao
Southern island in the Philippines which resisted Portuguese control and stayed Muslim.
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
The Dutch merchant Jan Pieterszoon Coen (ca. 1586-1629) founded Batavia as governor general of the Dutch East India Company. Possessed of great administrative and military ability, he contributed greatly to the expansion of Dutch influence in the East Indies.
Seven Years War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
smallpox
A highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
African slave trade
African peoples captured and taken as slaves to South America (sugar cane plantations) and North America (cotton plantations)
Manila Galleons
Spanish ships that traded in between Manila, Asia and Mexico, stirring their cultures.
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation
Henry VIII
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Ignatius Loyola
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
St. Teresa of Avila
Set up own convent of Carmelite Nuns and was asked to reorganize and reform convents and monasteries in Spain
witch-hunting
An investigation carried on with much publicity, supposedly to uncover dangerous activity but actually intended to weaken the political opposition.
Spanish Armada
The Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. He was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not soley focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.
Spanish Inquisition
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
absolutism
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Louis XIV
King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
Versailles
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
balance of power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.
urbanization
The movement of people from rural areas to cities
putting-out system
The merchant loans raw materials to several cottage workers, who processed the raw materials in their own homes and returned the finished product to the merchant.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Galileo Galilei
Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas
Issac Newton
British scientist who defined the laws of motion, discovered gravity, experimented with optics, invented differential calculus and wrote "Principia"
Voltaire
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Dona Marina
Aztec woman who became an interpreter for Hernando Cortes during his conquest of the Aztec empire
Tainos (Arawaks)
Most prominent Native American people in the Caribbean region in the 1400's. First to interact with Spanish explorers.
Encomienda
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it.
Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.
Francisco Pizzaro
Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish
Audiencias
Courts appointed by the king who reviewed the administration of viceroys serving Spanish colonies in America.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Pope sponsored agreement between Spain and Portugal to divide the world so that Africa and Asia would come under Portuguese control and the Americas would come under Spanish. (1494)
Pero Alvares Cabral
Claimed Brazil for the Portuguese in 1500
Peninsulares
Immigrants to Latin America born in Spain or Portugal
Creoles
Born in the Americas with Iberian parents
Mestizos
Mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
Mulattoes
Mixed Spanish and African heritage. Many were slaves
Zambos
Mixed African and Native American heritage. Usually slaves
Potosi
Richest silver mine in the Andes Mountains
Quinto
Spanish gov't claimed 1/5 of silver produced in their colonies
Repartimiento
Replaced encomienda system, supposed to provide shorter work periods and fairer pay
Engenho
Plantation in Brazil dedicated to sugar production
Benardino de Sahagun
Franciscan missionary in Mexico who preserved Native culture before Spanish arrived
Botany Bay
Site in Australia where James Cook dropped anchor in 1770, penal colony established in 1788
Chamorro
Natives of Guam and Mariana Islands who were taken over by the Spanish
Thomas Peters
spokesman for 200 black families, he went to london to petition for better treatment, he escaped to Nova Scotia with his family and many others, had escaped two times before
Gao
capital of Songhay empire
Sunni Ali
the leader of the Songhai, who in 1468, stormed into Timbuktu and drove out the Berbers beginning a campaign of conquest of the Sahara; by the time of his death in 1492 he had built the largest empire in west Africa
King Afonso I
Kongolese ruler (r. 1506 - 1542) who converted to Christianity and tried, unsuccessfully, to save his realm from the depredations of Portuguese slave raiders and merchants
Queen Nzinga
led spirited resistance against portuguese forces (conquest of angola), thought of as a king rather than a queen, mobilized central african peoples against her portuguese adversaries and allied with Dutch mariners who traded on african coast. Her aim= drive portuguese from her land, then expel dutch, and finally create a vast African empire embracing the entire lower Congo basin
Great Zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state. (p. 385)
Cape Town
Trading post in South Africa started by the Dutch in 1652
Hottentots
Dutch term for native South African people
Fulani
West African group who obeyed strict Islamic laws
Dona Beatriz
proclaimed to be possessed by St. Anthony to communicate messages from God, taught her followers that Jesus was a black man, later burned at stake
Manioc
Crop that came to Africa as a result of the Colombian Exchange
Sao Tome
controlled by portuguese, had perfect soil for growing sugar, producted much in demand in europe, used african american slaves to harvest sugar establishing the first modern colony dependant on slave labor
Middle Passage
Journey of slaves from Africa to Americas
Dahomey
(ca. 1650- 1894) African kingdom in present day southern Benin, reaching its height of influence in the eighteenth century. Its leaders sought regional power by raiding for slaves in other kingdoms and then selling the, for firearms and other European goods
Rum
Yum ;) very important commodity in European-American trade
Maroons
Runaway slaves who started their own communities
Saint-Domingue
French colony in modern day Haiti, site of slave rebellion
Gullah
Language spoken by slaves in South Carolina
Olaudah Equiano
Wrote about the harshness of slavery in an attempt to abolish it
Matteo Ricci
an Italian Jesuit priest, and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China Mission, as it existed in the 17th-18th centuries.
Yongle
(1403-1424) Chinese Emperor who launched a series of naval expeditions that sailed throughout the Indian Ocean. He compiled the Encyclopedia -- a collection of Chinese philosophical, literary, and historical texts.
Significance - He expanded China's maritime trade and made China known in the Indian Ocean and around the world, though his descendants ended his naval expeditions.
eunuchs
Castrated males who served the Chinese state. Some were allowed to live inside the Forbidden City in Beijing to serve the Emperor and his family. Since they could have no family of their own, it was assumed that they would serve the emperor with greater devotion. The admiral Zheng He is probably the best known example of this group.
Significance - The Chinese emperors put too much trust into the eunuchs, unintentionally giving them power. The power of the eunuchs contributed to the cause for the decline of the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Kangxi
(1661-1722) Chinese Emperor who was both a scholar and a conqueror. He studied Confucian teachings and sought to apply them through his policies. He organized flood-control and irrigation projects. Taiwan was one of the new territories added to the Qing Empire during his reign.
Significance - He was one of the two most effective emperors of Qing China. He looked after the welfare of his subjects by promoting agriculture and establishing Confucian schools.
kowtow
traditional bow made in the presence of the Chinese emperor. It required three kneelings and nine head knockings.
significance - This practice illustrated the supreme status of the emperor in China as the "Son of Heaven." European diplomats were sometimes reluctant to perform this ritual.
filial piety
the duties of children toward their fathers and the loyalty of subjects toward the emperor. This practice was encouraged by the government to promote peace and stability in Chinese society.
Significance - It was the cornerstone of family values. Children had the obligation to look after their parents' happiness and well-being. A crucial obligation was for children to support their parents in their old age.
Zheng He
He was the admiral who led seven massive maritime expeditions under the Ming emperor Yongle. His journeys took place from 1405 to 1433 and included visits to Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Arabia, and east Africa. His fleets included as many as 317 vessels and 28,000 men. Some historians contend that he also led journeys to Australia and the Americas but there is little evidence to support their theories.
Significance - He established a Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean. His expeditions indicate the wealth and power of Ming China. They also serve as a contrast to later Chinese policies regarding travel and foreign trade.
"Dream of the Red Chamber"
One of the most popular novels published in China during the Qing Dynasty. It tells the story of cousins deeply in love who could not marry because of their families' wishes. Scholars use this work to shed light on the dynamics of wealthy scholar-gentry families.
Significance - The popularity of this novel and others like it illustrated the desire for entertainment felt by literate merchants. The development of printing technology made it possible to produce books cheaply and in mass quantities so that such novels flooded Chinese cities during the Ming and Qing eras.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(reigned 1600-1616) United Japan under his leadership as shogun. He established a military government known as the Tokugawa bakufu ("tent government")
Significance - He was able to bring peace and stability to Japan after a century of civil war.
His descendents ruled Japan until 1868.
bushido
This was a code that the samurai lived by in Japan from the twelfth to the nineteenth century. It was also known as "the way of the warrior." It emphasized unquestioning loyalty to one's daimyo. It also called for bravery and devotion to the development of military skills.
Significance - The devotion of the samurai to their lords provided the basis for prolonged conflict between daimyos when there was no shogun. It also served as the basis for the authority of the shoguns after the daimyos was subjugated.
Francis Xavier
A Jesuit who traveled to Japan in 1549 to open a Catholic mission. His efforts and those of other Jesuits were successful in convincing many Japanese to become Christians. However the popularity of Christianity in Japan declined dramatically in the early 1600s.
Significance - The popularity of Christianity generated a backlash from Japanese government officials and moralists seeking to preserve Japanese religious and cultural traditions. Many Japanese Christians were persecuted for their beliefs.
Hongwu
(1368-1398) He founded the Ming dynasty and drove the Mongols out of China. He used mandarins and trusted eunuchs to help him rule.
Significance - His rule restored native rule of China as well as the hallowed place of Confucian thought in Chinese society.
The Forbidden City
This was the imperial palace in Beijing for the Ming and Qing emperors. It had this name because "intact males" other than the emperor were forbidden to live there.
Significance- Surrounded by massive walls, it provided a safe stronghold for royal family It was often dominated by eunuchs who were supposed to serve the emperor and his family. The separation of the emperor from regular Chinese society often meant that the emperor did not know what was really going on in China
queue
This was a braided hairstyle that the Qing emperors required all male subjects to wear.
Significance- This hairstyle illustrated the power of the Qing emperors to remake Chinese society and mandate submission of the Chinese people to the Manchurian conquerors.
Qianlong
(reigned from 1736 - 1795) He was the Emperor of the Qing dynasty who expanded Chinese authority over Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal. He made the empire so wealthy that he occasionally cancelled tax collections
Significance- He brought China into a time of overall peace and prosperity, but weakened the empire by expanding the role of eunuchs in imperial affairs
Civil Service Exam
This was a government exam on Confucian philosophy that was used to determine which men were qualified to serve as government officials (mandarins). It was given predominantly to the sons of wealthy men and took 3 days to complete.
Significance - It filtered out "less qualified" individuals, leaving only the most intelligent men educated in Confucian thought to serve in the government. Mandarin leadership in local Chinese government was a significant factor in the stability and prosperity of Chinese society. Although this examination procedure fell out of use during Mongol rule of China, the Ming dynasty brought it back. The Qing dynasty set up an easier test for Manchurian candidates, but Chinese candidates were required to take the traditional exam.
foot binding
This was a custom that originated during the Song Dynasty where the feet of upper class girls were bound tightly in order to keep their feet small. This practice became more widespread in China during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Some working class girls also had their feet bound in hopes of improving their prospects for marriage into the upper class.
significance- Parents in China bound the feet of their daughters in hopes of enhancing their marriage prospects. This also serves as an example of how women were controlled by men in China. It was considered a sign of wealth and prestige for a man to have a wife who could not work.
Yongle Encyclopedia
This project was sponsored by the Ming Emperor Yongle. The encyclopedia was a large collection of Chinese philosophical, literary, and historical texts that filled almost 23,000 scrolls.
significance- It emphasized Chinese cultural traditions as the basis for the education of Chinese scholars. It helped the educated Chinese become more familiar with their culture. After the rule of the Mongols during the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty worked to rebuild respect and knowledge of Chinese culture.
Shogun
This was the title for the Japanese leader who used his control of the military "to protect" the Emperor. He was in effect the military dictator of Japan. Because this position held so much power, the emperors of Japan were figureheads rather than rulers. The Tokugawa family used this position to end a century of civil war when they took over Japan in 1600.
Significance. The Tokugawa rulers forbade Japanese people from going abroad and foreigners from coming to Japan. They were also against Christianity and tried to end it in Japan.
Daimyo
They were powerful territorial lords who ruled most districts of Japan from their hereditary land holdings. Local samurai were required to give absolute obedience and loyalty to their daimyo.
Significance- Each of the roughly 260 daimyo functioned as a near-absolute ruler within his domain. Each of these leaders set up their own private army as well as schools and an independent judiciary. These local leaders were brought under the control by the Tokugawa Shogunate around the year 1600.
Shinto
This came to be recognized as the national religion of Japan. It emphasized the veneration of kami, which were nature spirits connected with each clan. The torii is a symbol generally associated with the Shinto reverence for nature.
Significance - During the eighteenth century, scholars of "native learning" in Japan scorned neo-Confucianism and other beliefs that had not originally developed in Japan. Shinto symbolized an aspect of original Japanese culture during a time when the country was in search of its identity.
Shah Jahan
(1592-1666) He was the Mughal Emperor who constructed the Peacock Throne, and built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. His reign led to the golden age of Mughal art and architecture.
Significance- His sponsorship of the creation of the Peacock Throne and the Taj Mahal demonstrated the wealth of the Mughal Empire as well as the fundamental importance of Islamic beliefs in the Mughal government.
Osman Bey
The Founder of the Ottoman Empire. He was the chief, bey, of a group of semi-nomadic Turks who migrated to Anatolia in the thirteenth century. Osman and his people sought to become ghazi ("warriors of the faith").
Significance-He established the ruling dynasty of the Ottoman Empire that lasted from 1298 to its dissolution in 1923.
Ghazi
This term was used to describe the Muslim religious warriors who believed themselves to be the sword of God. They believed that it was their duty to rid the world of polytheism and if they died serving Allah, they would live eternally with God.
Significance - They used religion to fuel their successful holy war against the Byzantine Empire.
Devshirme
This was an Ottoman institution, which required the Christian population of the Balkans to supply the sultan with young boys to become slaves. The boys converted to Islam, were taught Turkish, and received special training. Depending on their skill, they would either join the army or the Ottoman government administration. Those who became soldiers were known as Janissaries and were not allowed to marry or have families of their own.
Significance- This practice was a successful way to create Islamic converts and reduce the Christian population under Ottoman control. Sultans relied on the devoted individuals recruited under this policy for administration, expansion, and defense of the Ottoman Empire.
Janissaries
The Ottomans required the Christian population of the Balkans to contribute young boys to become slaves of the sultan. The boys received special training, learned Turkish, and converted to Islam. Those who became solders were known as Janissaries, from the Turkish "yeni cheri" which means "new troops"
Significance- The Janissaries quickly gained a reputation for esprit de corps, loyalty to the sultan, and readiness to employ new military technology. The Janissaries helped to strengthen the Ottoman military forces.
Mehmed II
(reigned 1451-1481) He was the Ottoman ruler who laid the foundations for a tightly centralized, absolute monarchy. He conquered most of Serbia, moved into southern Greece and Albania, eliminated the last Byzantine outpost at Trebizond, captured Genoese ports in the Crimea, and initiated a naval war with Venice in the Mediterranean.
Significance - He captured Constantinople in 1453, renaming it Istanbul and was known as Mehmed the Conqueror
Suleymen the Magnificent
(reigned 1520-1560) He was the sultan who presided over the Ottoman Empire at its peak. During his reign it became a major naval power with fleets in Aegean, Black, Mediterranean, and Red Seas. His fleets also challenged Portuguese dominance in the Indian Ocean. His conquests included Mesopotamia, most of Hungary, the island of Rhodes, and the remainder of Serbia. He laid siege to Vienna but was unable to take the city.
Significance - He vigorously promoted Ottoman expansion, both in southwest Asia and in Europe.
Shah Ismai I
(reigned 1501-1524) He was the founder of the Safavid Dynasty in Persia who seized control of the Iranian plateau and launched expeditions into the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and central Asia.
Significance - Ismail adopted Twelver Shiism which he forced upon his subjects. This religion held that there had been twelve infallible imams after Muhammad, and that he himself was the twelfth "hidden imam." Some Shiites came to believe that he was an incarnation of Allah.
qizilbash
Turkish followers of Shah Ismail who ruled the Safavid Empire from 1501-1524. They distinguished themselves by wearing a red hat with twelve pleats, in memory of the twelve Shiite imams. qizilbash="red heads"
Significance - They accepted that Ismail was the hidden imam, or the incarnation of Allah himself. Most Muslims believed these ideas were blasphemous. The Ottoman sultan Selim the Grim feared that nomadic Turks in the Ottoman Empire would join this group so he persecuted Shiites in the Ottoman Empire and launched a successful attack on the Safavid Empire.
Twelver Shiism
This was a Muslim belief that there had been twelve infallible imams (religious leaders) after Muhammad. These imams began with Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law Ali. The twelfth "hidden" imam had gone into hiding to escape persecution in 874
Significance - The twelfth imam was supposed to return to take power and spread his true religion. Shiite Muslims subscribe to this belief. Sunni Muslims generally do not
Chladiran
(1514) Key battle of the Ottoman invasion of Safavid territories. The Savafids lost this battle in part because they refused to use any gunpowder weapons, which they believed to be unmanly or unreliable. As a result of their victory, the Ottomans temporarily took over Ismail's capital at Tabriz
Significance - Because Ottoman Empire lacked the resources to completely sack the Safavid Empire, the Safavids were able to regain control of Persia. The two empires remained in conflict for the next two centuries
Shah Abbas the Great
(ruled 1588 -1629) He moved the Safavid capital to Isfahan, encouraged trade with other nations, and increased the use of gunpowder weapons. He reformed the administrative and military institutions of the empire.
Significance--He revitalized the Safavid Empire. His campaigns brought most of the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and northwest Iran under his rule
Babur "The Tiger"
He was originally Zahir al-Din Muhammad, a Chagatai Turk who claimed descent from both Chinggis Khan and Tamerlane. He conquered much of northern India and perceived himself to be more of a soldier and an adventurer than an empire builder or religious crusader.
Significance- He started the Mughal dynasty in India.
Akbar (not Admiral)
(reigned 1556-1605) He was Babur's grandson who was the real builder of the Mughal Empire. His conquests included Malwa, Gujarat, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, and Kandesh.
Significance- He instituted a policy of religious toleration in the Mughul Empire and tried to create a religion that would combine elements of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.
Aurangzeb
(reigned 1659-1707) The Mughal Empire controlled the most territory under his rule after he pushed his control into southern India.
Significance - He reversed Akbar's policy of religious toleration. He sponsored the destruction of many Hindu temples and the construction of mosques on the sites of these destroyed temples. Because of his religious attitudes and the large territory under his control, rebellions were common during his reign.
Sikhism
This is a syncretic faith that combines elements of Islam and Hinduism. It became especially prominent in the regions of Punjab and Kashmir. Their most sacred site is the Golden Temple of Amritsar.
Significance - Except for brief periods of toleration, the Sikhs have been required to fight against control from Islamic and Hindu powers. Most Sikhs live in India today. Many support the creation of an independent state of Punjab.
jizya
This was a tax imposed on non-Muslims in a Muslim state, in order to compensate the state for the protection given to non-Muslims (dhimmi) who are not permitted to serve in the military
Significance- The dhimmi (protected people) retained their personal freedom, kept their property, practiced their religion, and handled their own legal affairs
Millet
These were autonomous religious communities in the Ottoman empire which retained their own civil laws, traditions, and languages; they also usually assumed social and administrative functions in matters concerning birth, marriage, death, health, and education
Significance- These communities were able to help non-Muslims stay in touch with their culture and religion; the jizya made this possible
Sinan Pasha
(1489-1588), He was an architectural genius who was responsible for the construction of a vast religious complex called the Suleymaniye. This project combined tall, slender minarets with large domed buildings supported by half domes in the style of the Byzantine church Hagia Sofia
Significance - He was able to blend Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements in his building of the Suleymaniye which is one of the most celebrated monuments in Istanbul.
Wahhabi Movement
This is a religious movement started by Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in Arabia in the 1740s. Their theology treats the Qur'an and Hadith as fundamental texts. They became closely associated with the Saud family in Arabia and denounced the Ottomans as dangerous religious innovators who were unfit to rule.
Significance- They objected to the growing influence of Western European ideas in Islamic lands. Some examples of their reluctance to embrace Western ideas include their protests against the construction of an astronomical observatory in Istanbul and their campaign to shut down the Ottoman printing press.
Hong Xuiquan
Hong Xuiquan - (1800's) He was a village schoolteacher who provided inspiration and leadership for
the Taiping rebellion. After failing to pass the civil service exam and a long illness, he began to study
religion and believed that he had visited heaven during his sickness and claimed to be a younger
brother of Jesus. After the Taiping movement failed to overthrow the Qing Dynasty, he committed
suicide in 1862.
Significance - His Taiping movement favored the equality of women with men and nearly brought the
end of the Qing dynasty in China.
Extraterritoriality
A privilege generally extended to diplomats in a foreign country which holds that
they are not subject to the laws of the host nation.
Significance - This privilege was extended to all foreign nationals in China. Consequently the Chinese
were unable to police any aspect of foreign behavior within their borders. This led to exploitation by
European merchants and resentment of European power by the Chinese.
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau
(1816-1882) A French conservative who was racially prejudiced against
Jews. His most famous work "Essay on the Inequality of Human Races" (1853 - 1855) maintained the
superiority of the Aryan race.
Significance - He showed how the development of nationalism could sometimes inspire racism. His
writings directly influenced the ideas of German Nazi theorists in their development of anti-semitism
in the twentieth century.
Ram Mohun Roy
(1772-1833) An Indian reformer who supported monotheism, and
also argued for more freedom of speech. He attacked the traditional practices of suttee, polygamy,
and the caste system. He supported the creation of schools in India on the British model.
Significance - The reforms he suggested in Hindu practice appear to have been inspired by his study
of Christianity, but he cited ancient Hindu traditions as the basis of his reforms. He believed that
India could learn from the British.
Bloody Sunday
January 22, 1905 A group of unarmed workers marched on the Winter Palace of Tsar Nicholas II demanding a popularly elected assembly. Govt. troops met them and killed over a hundred demonstrators in the streets.
Opium War
(1839-1842) The conflict between Britain and China over the illegal opium trade in China.
British gunboats took control along the Yangzi and Yellow Rivers and quickly overcame the Chinese
military.
Significance - Showed China's military weaknesses against the industrialized European countries and
forced China into unequal treaties with Britain. British interests built the city of Hong Kong in territory
taken from China after this conflict.
Taiping Rebellion
A revolution in Qing China led by Hung Xiuquan which placed heavy social reforms on Chinese culture such as prohibition of slave trade, prostitution, and foot-binding. Taiping beliefs were inspired to some degree by Christian principles.
Significance - Millions of Chinese died during this conflict. The violence and economic dislocation
associated with this event severely weakened the Qing dynasty's hold on power in China.
King Leopold II of Belgium
(1865-1909) - he organized, with the help of H. M. Stanley, the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Congo. As a possession of the Belgian crown,
the Congo was exploited so severely that the Belgian government eventually took this territory away
from the king and made it a Belgian colony.
Significance- His claims in the Congo touched off the scramble for Africa. By 1900 only Ethiopia and
Liberia remained outside the sphere of European imperialism.
Maori
They are people of New Zealand believed to have migrated from the islands of Polynesia. Their
land was seized by British colonists after they were defeated in battle and forced to sign the Treaty of
Waitangi.
Significance- They were one of many groups that was greatly affected by the migration of Europeans
to their land, but still managed to maintain their cultural identity. They also suffered great population
loss because of the diseases that many settlers brought with them.
Sepoys
Natives of India who served in the armies of the British. Originally they served in the private
armies of British merchants from the British East India Company. They later served in the British
colonial army in India as well as other locations in the British Empire and elsewhere during
World War I.
Significance - They staged a bloody revolt in 1857, and which was eventually defeated by the British
in 1858, thanks to superior British technology. In response to this revolt, Britain imposed direct
imperial rule on India.
Maxim
This is the name of a family of inventors and munitions makers. Men of this family
invented the Maxim machine gun, smokeless gunpowder, an airplane, various different sorts of
explosives, and a silencer for explosive weapons.
Significance - This family invented many of the tools of warfare that helped European empires keep
an edge over other countries by employing these new technologies.
Russo- Japanese War
(Feb. 1904 - May 1905) began with a Japanese surprise attack on the Russian
naval squadron at Port Arthur and ended with the destruction of the Russian army.
Significance - This loss showed the weakness of Russia and its army. As a result of this, Austria and
Germany were probably less concerned about a possible conflict with Russia in 1914.
Duma
an elected legislative assembly in Russia created by Tsar Nicholas II as a concession to help
end the Revolt of 1905
Significance - This assembly lacked the power to create or bring down governments, it was merely an
assembly that was set up to make the people think that they had a say in the government.
Treaty of Nanjing
Treaty made at the conclusion of the Opium War between the Chinese and Great Britain made in 1842.
Significance - ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain, opened five Chinese ports to
commerce and residence, compelled the Qing government to extend most-favored nation status to
Britain, and granted extraterritoriality to Britain subjects.
Alexander II
(reign: 1855-1881) ended the Crimean war and turned to reforming Russia. Significant
reforms included the abolition of serfdom in 1861 and the introduction of zemstvos as a means of
introducing limited self-government at the local level.
Significance - His efforts at reform inspired radical terrorist activities in Russia including his own
assassination. Later tsars followed repressive policies partly due to his fate.
Pogroms
Violent attacks on Jewish communities encouraged by government officials in Russia.
Significance - This persecution prompted many Jews to leave Russia. One of the favorite
destinations for Russian Jews was the United States.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino rebel leader who worked with the United States to drive the Spanish out of the Philippines. He felt betrayed by the United States when it took over the Philippines instead of assuring its independence. After Spain sold the Philippines to America, Filipino rebels attacked the Americans. He led the revolt against U.S. occupation.
Significance - the revolts led by Aguinaldo until 1906 showed the longing for native rule in the
Philippines. The conflict claimed 4,200 Americans, 10,000 rebels, and 200,000 natives lives.
Indentured labor migration
After slavery was abolished in many countries in the 1800s, a large
number of laborers were needed to take the place of the slaves. These laborers were provided with
food and free passage but were required to work for their employer for up to seven years with very
little pay. The majority of these workers came from India, but sizable numbers also came from China,
Japan, Java, Africa, and the Pacific islands. They primarily travelled to tropical and subtropical lands
in the Americas, the Caribbean, Africa, and Oceania.
Significance- The indentured labor migrations were able to help maintain economic stability in global
agricultural production and planters were still able to make a good profit despite the end of slavery.
Matthew C. Perry
American Commander of the US naval squadron that came to Edo Bay in 1853 and
threatened the bakufu capital of Edo. Edo later became the city of Tokyo
Significance - He demanded that the shogun open Japan to diplomatic and commercial relations.
Agreement by Japanese government gave the United States commercial rights, deprived the
Japanese government of control over tariffs, and granted foreigners extraterritorial rights.
Muhammad Ali
(ruled: 1805-1848) He was selected to serve as the governor of Egypt for the
Ottoman Empire. He drafted peasants to serve as infantry, hired French and Italian officers to train
his troops, and launched a program of industrialization based on cotton textiles and armaments. He
invaded Syria and Anatolia, and threatened to capture Istanbul and topple the Ottoman state.
Significance - His efforts to make Egypt a modern industrialized country were ultimately unsuccessful
due to opposition from European governments and the large debt he incurred in his efforts to build
factories and railroads
Selim III
(reigned 1789-1807) He was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who tried to remodel his
army along the lines of European forces.
Significance - His new forces threatened the elite Janissary corps so the Janissaries rose up in revolt,
killing the new troops, and locking up the sultan.
The Boxer Rebellion
(1899-1900) Revolt against European dominance in China that was led by the
Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. In their efforts to drive out the European influence this
group killed foreigners, Chinese Christians, and all Chinese that had ties to the "foreign devils" in
northern China. In addition this movement sought to capture many of the European embassies in
Beijing in 1900 but was thwarted in these efforts by British, French, German, Japanese, Russian and
US troops
Significance - In compensation for damages done by this movement, China had to pay an indemnity
and allow foreign powers to "protect" foreign embassies and sea routes.
After this rebellion was put down many Chinese believed that the Qing dynasty had lost its mandate
of heaven and threw their support to Sun Yixian's revolution and the Republic that he set up in China
in 1911.
Meiji Reforms
1852-1912 This program for change took its name from the emperor who started it. In order to decide how to adapt the Japanese government sent students and officials abroad to study
technology, constitutions, and economic development. As a result of these travels and studies the Japanese government adopted a constitution in imitation of the German government and worked to
modernize their economy and military in imitation of Great Britain and the United States.
Significance - Japan avoided domination by European powers and eventually developed its own
empire
Maji Maji Rebellion
Insurrection by natives in Tanganyika, Africa (present-day Tanzania) which
sought to expel German colonial authorities from 1905 to 1907. Supporters sprinkled "magic" water
on themselves believing it would protect them from the Germans' weapons. Unfortunately they were
wrong and about seventy-five thousand rebels died.
Significance- this unsuccessful rebellion showed the effectiveness of European weapons in
comparison to the weapons of tribal Africans. The failure of this rebellion convinced the African
natives to resort to other means such as boycotting European goods and organizing political parties.
Herbert Spencer
(1820-1903) He was an English philosopher who distorted Darwin's theories of evolution to explain the differences between the strong and the weak within human society. He applied his "theories" to individuals and races to explain why some were more successful than others.
Significance- His theories provided a self-serving excuse for the domination and greed of European
imperialists in their exploitation of subject peoples. He is generally considered one of the leading
Social Darwinists of the 19th century.
Indian National Conference
It was a reform group founded in India in 1885 with British approval. It was a group of educated Indian men from all parts of the country who came together in order to discuss and communicate their views on public affairs to the colonial officials. They aired grievances about Indian poverty, transferring of wealth to Britain, trade and tariff policies, and British racism toward Indians.
Significance- the Indian National Congress helped to inspire Indians nationalism and the desire to
seek Indian "home rule."
sati (or suttee)
The practice of burning widows on their husbands' funeral pyre- Officially banned by Indian law in 1829, but effective suppression of the practice came only after a long campaign by British colonial authority.
Significance- When the Indian government outlawed an act illustrating male dominance that had
been practiced for centuries, it represented a growing appreciation for women. Many Indians viewed
the end of this practice as evidence of colonial interference in their local customs and beliefs.
Thomas Stamford Raffles
Founded the port of Singapore and helped make it one of the most
important British controlled cities in the world.
Significance
He facilitated the British conquest of Malaya (Malaysia) which provided abundant
supplies of tin and rubber as well as offered outstanding ports. His actions also enabled the British
navy to control sea lanes linking the Indian Ocean with the South China Sea.
Viceroy
Term used for the British Royal governor of India who administered India as a British colony
through an elite Indian civil service staffed almost exclusively by British citizens
Significance - This position was created by the British government after the Sepoy Rebellion in 1857.
It remained the most powerful political position in India until 1948 when India became independent of
Britain.
Great Game
Russian and British explorers ventured into parts of central Asia never before visited by Europeans; they mapped terrain, scouted mountain passes, and sought alliances with local rulers from Afghanistan to the Aral Sea, all in an effort to improve their ability to influence affairs in India. Many government officials in Russia and Great Britain expected to fight a war over which country would ultimately dominate the area.
Significance- British agents spoke of this engagement between military officers and imperialist
adventurers as a risky pursuit of influence and intelligence. This term indicates the sporting attitude
that some British officers exhibited with regard to the extension of the British empire.
Rudyard Kipling
(1865-1936) A British writer who wrote works such as "The Man Who Would Become King" (1889), "The Jungle Book" (1894), and "Kim" (1901). These are all set in British occupied India. He was also the author of the poem entitled "The White Man's Burden."
Significance - He believed that British culture provided advantages to the native people of India and
is consequently believed to be a great defender of imperialism.
Omdurman
This is a city in northeast-central Sudan on the White Nile opposite Khartoum.
Significance - Anglo-Egyptian troops defeated the Sudanesed native forces here in 1898. The number
of Sudanese casualties were dramatically higher due to the British/Egyptian use of modern weapons
(machine guns, artillery, steam powered gunboats).
Franz Ferdinand
He was the Archduke and heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His assassination in
Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip was the catalyst for the outbreak of WWI.
Total War
A country devoting all of its resources and population to war. World War I set a new level for this. The government planning that took place in Germany, France, and Great Britain to bring the war effort to this level set the stage for socialist and totalitarian governments that took
power later.
Self-Determination
Peoples with the same ethnic origins, language, political ideals have right to form their own
independent countries. This was one of the main principles within Woodrow Wilson's 14
Points after World War I.
Pan-Slavism
Developed by the Russians, this idea called for all Slavs to support one another. This idea
helps to explain why Russia backed Serbia at the beginning of World War I.
Dreadnoughts
This refers to a new class of battleships first introduced by the British in 1906. These ships
boasted more powerful guns, with a firing range twice that of other ships. The creation of
these ships started an arms race between Great Britain and Germany before World War I.
Triple Entente
A defensive alliance between France, Great Britain. and Russia in the early 1900s.
Schlieffen Plan
German General's plan to fight a two-front war against France and Russia. Germany was
unable to carry out this plan in 1914 and subsequently met defeat after fighting for years on two fronts.
War of Attrition
This was a type of war that was designed to kill as many soldiers on other side as possible.
Home Front
This was a major part of total war effort by civilians back in the home countries. Recycling,
rationing, morale, and efficient farming were all major components of the war in this area.
TNT Poisoning
This was a medical condition that many women working in munitions factories developed.
Symptoms included bright orange hair, yellow hands, nausea, and fever.
Twenty-one Demands
Japanese list of demands given to China soon after World War I. Although intended to be
secret, the Chinese government leaked news of these to Great Britain in order to solicit aid
against the Japanese.
Gallipoli
Battle on the peninsula that formed the western side of the Dardanelles in 1916 and 1917.
Turkish troops held off Australian and New Zealand forces (ANZACs) and prevented the
Allies from bringing supplies to Russia through the Straits
Nicholas II
He was the last Russian Tsar. He chose to back Serbia after the assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand which was a major factor in the outbreak of World War I. His abdication
and later murder in 1917 contributed to the success of communist revolution in Russia.
soviets
These were originally local councils in Russia that were elected only by manual workers.
According to communist leaders, they were supposed to exercise certain powers of local
administration. The Petrograd Soviet was instrumental to Lenin's success in taking power in 1917. These groups later became a major part of the political structure in the USSR where
they operated as popularly elected legislative assemblies that existed at local, regional, and national levels.
Vladimir Lenin
He was the Marxist leader who founded the Bolshevik party and later led the communist
revolution in Russia in 1917. His death in 1924 started a power struggle between Trotsky and
Stalin to see who would emerge as the new leader of the USSR.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Agreement between newly communist Russia and Germany in 1918 that ended formal
hostilities between the two countries and awarded Germany a substantial amount of territory. France and Great Britain never forgave Lenin for breaking their alliance and pulling Russia out of the war.
Lusitania
This was a British ship that was sunk by a German u-boat in 1915 while carrying civilians.
There were 1,198 deaths, including 128 US citizens. Although the US did not declare war
against Germany, American hostility toward the German government increased considerably.
Treaty of Versailles
This was the diplomatic agreement signed in 1919 that formally ended the war between the
Allies and Germany. It called for Germany to assume the primary guilt for the outbreak
of World War I, mandated the return of Alsace and Lorraine back to France, and called for
Germany to pay high reparations to France and Great Britain to help pay for the costs of the
war.
League of Nations
This was an international organization that was created to keep world peace after WWI. It
had little power to enforce its policies and was further weakened by the absence of the US &
USSR.
Mandate System
This was the system to divide German and Ottoman territories outside of Europe. It violated
British and French promises to Arab leaders. In principle the system was supposed to provide
aid to countries that were not yet deemed ready for independence by the League of Nations.
In effect it allowed France and Great Britain to expand their colonial empires. In the Middle
East Lebanon and Syria became French mandates while Palestine and Iraq became British mandates.
"lost generation"
This is a phrase made popular by American author Ernest Hemingway and often used to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and other parts of Europe, some after military service in the First World War. Figures identified with the "Lost Generation" include authors and poets F. Scott Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Ezra Pound, Sherwood
Anderson, Waldo Peirce, and John Dos Passos. More generally, the term is used for the
generation of young people coming of age in the United States during and shortly after
World War I. They were said to be disillusioned by the large number of casualties of the
First World War, cynical, disdainful of the notions of morality and propriety of their elders,
and ambivalent about 19th-century gender ideals.
Oswald Spengler
He was the author of The Decline of the West in which he claimed that civilization and
culture have the same cycle of growth and decay as humans.
Jose Ortega y Gasset
He was a Spanish Philosopher who wrote an essay entitled The Revolt of the Masses (1930) in which he attacked democratic government and warned that the masses
would destroy the highest achievements of Western Civilization.
The Uncertainty Principle
This was the idea based on the theory of physicist Werner Heisenberg which
stated that observing a physical phenomenon (such as the location and velocity of
electrons) interferes with the natural behavior of the phenomenon being observed.
Consequently all conclusions should be stated in terms of probability rather than
absolutes. The implication is that humans cannot really be absolutely sure of any
knowledge.
Sigmund Freud
He was an Austrian physician who is considered the founder of psychoanalysis. His
writings about the subconscious influenced 20th century psychology, philosophy, and
culture.
Paul Gaugin
He was a post impressionist painter who fled Europe for central America and Tahiti. He was inspired by the "primitive" art that he found there
claiming that it held a sense of wonder that civilized people no longer possessed. His willingness to blend non-Western ideas with more conventional Western ideas contributed to a movement that looked at other cultures for inspiration.
Cubism
Style of painting popularized by Pablo Picasso and George Braque that reduced all
forms to geometric shapes. Their rejection of realism was characteristic of modern
art in the early 1900s.
Bauhaus
A community of architects, designers, and painters to create a style of building and
design unique to the 20thcentury
John Maynard Keynes
Economist who urged governments to be active in economy in order to maintain healthy growth and avoid recessions or depressions. Application of his theories led to
the development of government funded public works projects to build hydroelectric
plants, dams, bridges, roads, stadiums and other construction deemed in the public
interest.
Red Terror
Lenin's policy of crushing all opposition to his communist regime. Anyone suspected
of anticommunist feelings was subject to arrest, trial, and execution. 200,000 killed in
this campaign.
War Communism
Provoked by civil war in Russia. Soldiers could take anything from anyone if it was deemed useful or necessary in the effort to defeat the White forces in the Russian Civil War.
New Economic Plan (NEP)
Lenin's plan which temporarily restored the Russia economy in the early 1920s. It let
people sell many goods in free markets. The kulaks thrived under this system.
"socialism in one country"
Josef Stalin's attitude regarding the role the USSR in spreading communism in the
1920s. Unlike his rival Leon Trotsky, who called for "permanent revolution," Stalin
argued that good communists should work to make communism a success in the
USSR prior to devoting energy and resources to promote communist revolutions in
other parts of the world.
five-year plans
Stalin replaced Lenin's NEP with complete government control of the economy. It
established a system of quotas that ultimately enabled the USSR to develop economic
strength in many areas.
collectivization
This was Stalin's economic program to increase agricultural production in the 1920s
and 1930s. Under this plan, private ownership of farmland was abolished and giant
government-run farms were set up to provide agricultural goods. Although originally
conceived on the basis of greater efficiency, agricultural production actually declined
dramatically as a result of this reorganization
kulaks
These were wealthy peasant farmers whose land was taken away by Stalin's
collectivization. In response to this confiscation many of these farmers burned their
produce rather than let the government have it. Such destruction became a capital
offense and thousands were executed.
Great Purge
Anyone accused of opposition to Stalin was either killed or imprisoned in a gulag
where they were required to do hard labor. This enabled Stalin to eliminate any
possible or perceived rivals and assured his continued control of the country. Most of
those condemned were tried between 1935 and 1938.
fascism
This was a political system with a dictator. It first developd in Italy under Mussolini in the 1920s. Hitler later imitated the Italian model in Germany in the 1930s. A common characteristic of these dictatorships was their opposition to the spread of communism.
Nuremburg Laws
This was legislation passed in Germany in 1935 soon after Hitler came to power. It stripped German Jews of Citizenship and outlawed marriage/sex between German Jews and other Germans.
Kristallnacht
The Nazis organized the destruction of synagogues as well as stores owned by Jews.
Over 100 Jews were murdered in Germany and Austria on that night. It caused many Jew's to flee Germany and proved to be an early indication of how badly the social position of Jews would deteriorate.
Mohandas K. Gandhi
(1869 - 1948) Native Indian who attended law school at University College in London, England. After being called to the bar in England and Wales, Gandhi returned to Bombay for a time to practice law. His Bombay practice did not flourish, so he left for a job in South Africa, where he developed a practice that kept him in that country for most of his time between 1893 and
1914. It was through witnessing firsthand the racism, prejudice, and injustice against Indians in South Africa that Gandhi started to question his people's status within the British Empire, and his own place in society. He was the pioneer of Satyagraha —a philosophy that is largely concerned with truth and 'resistance to evil through active, non-violent resistance. Gandhi returned to India during World War I and eventually became a leader in the Indian campaign for home rule.
Significance - Gandhi's program of non-violent non-cooperation helped bring about the independence
of India from Great Britain in 1948. His success inspired many other natives in colonial territories to work for independence from European control.
Amritsar
This is the city in the northern Indian province of Punjab where British officers ordered the massacre of peaceful protestors in 1919. There were 379 people killed and many more wounded.
Significance - After this incident Gandhi insisted that India should have independence from Great Britan
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(1876 - 1948) Lawyer who became the head of the Muslim League and fought for India to become two states: Hindu India and Islamic Pakistan. He eventually became the first Governor-General of Pakistan in 1947.
Significance - His leadership helped to bring about the withdrawal of the British government from South Asia. The creation of Pakistan led to Civil War in the late 1940s and eventually hostile relations with India.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(1856 - 1920) He was a founder of Hindu nationalism and insisted on complete
independence of India from British control. Gandhi referred to him as "the maker of modern India."
Significance - He helped to lay the groundwork for the independence movement in India. His
emphasis on pride in Indian culture was adopted by Gandhi and Nehru.
Sun Yatsen
He was the leader of the Revolution that ended the Qing Dynasty in 1911. He served
briefly as the first President of China but was forced from power. His party, the Guomindang, returned to power in the 1920s and led the government of China.
Significance - He is generally acknowledged to be the "father of modern China."
Guomindang
Nationalist Party in China originally started by Sun Yatsen and eventually led by Jiang Jieshi. This group helped to overthrow the Qing Dynasty and set up a Republic in China. This group led the government of China between 1925 and 1949 before the communists took over and Mao Zedong became the head of China's government. This term is also spelled Kuomintang
Significance - This was the political party that represented democratic government in China. Its
failure to serve the people, particularly during World War II, doomed it to failure.
Jiang Jieshi
(1887 - 1975) He was the leader of the Guomindang after the death of Sun Yatsen.
He devoted more of his resources to eliminating communism in China than he did to resisting
Japanese conquest in the 1930s and 1940s. He was the President of China from 1928 - 1931
and from 1943 - 1949. After Mao took over China in 1949, he emigrated to Taiwan where he
continued to claim to be the President of the "Republic of China" until his death. His name is
often written Chiang Kai-shek.
Significance - He was one of the most devoted anti-communist leaders of the twentieth century
and was able to maintain the independence of Taiwan from mainland China largely as the result
of US support during the Cold War.
Mao Zedong
(1893 - 1976) Leader of the Communist Revolution in China in 1949 and the government
of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until 1976. His government of China included the "Great Leap Forward" in the 1950s and the "Cultural Revolution" in the 1960s. His methods of developing base of support among poor farmers inspired other leaders to do the same in Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Significance: Under his leadership China emerged as a superpower to rival the United States and the USSR. China also experienced severe economic problems during his long tenure as the leader of the communist government there.
Long March
This was a 6000 mile journey by the Chinese Communists and the Red Army, undertaken in 1934, after the liquidation campaign of the Kuomintang leader Jiang Jieshi dislodged them from their bases in Jiangxi (Kiangsi) Province. The march began in October 1934, when some 100,000 soldiers, officials, and followers left Jiangxi. Traversing difficult terrain and fighting for survival against Kuomintang forces as well as hunger and disease, the 8000-strong remnant of the marchers reached Shaanxi (Shensi) in
October 1935 and established headquarters at Yanan (Yenan). The ranks were later swelled by other units of the Red Army.
Significance - Mao Zedong emerged as the unquestioned leader of the Communists in China during this ordeal. Many of those who survived this journey later helped to bring about the communist takeover of China in 1949.
Mudken Incident
Japanese soldiers faked an attack on a Japanese railway built in Manchuria in
order to justify taking over the region in 1931.
Significance - Japan used this "incident" to expand their control in Northern China. Their
aggression in this case led to a condemnation by a commission sent out by the League of
Nations to investigate the situation. Japan renewed its aggressive policy in China in 1937 withits attack on Shanghai and Nanjing.
Mumbo cult
This was a group in Kenya that revered a serpent god and rejected Christianity.
Leaders of this creed predicted that Europeans would disappear from Africa and that those
natives who continued to help Europeans would pay a heavy price. This movement was strongest between 1914 and 1934.
significance - The development of this group illustrates the widespread native resentment of the European domination in Africa after World War I.
Axis
The countries that opposed the Allies in World War II. The primary members of this alliance
included Germany, Italy, and Japan. Member countries all had governments that concentrated
power in the hands of a single leader who emphasized an aggressive foreign policy of conquest and
subjugation.
Significance - Members of this alliance started World War II. It was also the name of a treaty that was
signed between Mussolini and Hitler before World War II began. A similar term has also been used
recently by President Bush to describe enemies..."the Axis of Evil."
Rape of Nanjing
The countries that opposed the Allies in World War II. The primary members of this alliance
included Germany, Italy, and Japan. Member countries all had governments that concentrated
power in the hands of a single leader who emphasized an aggressive foreign policy of conquest and
subjugation.
Significance - Members of this alliance started World War II. It was also the name of a treaty that was
signed between Mussolini and Hitler before World War II began. A similar term has also been used
recently by President Bush to describe enemies..."the Axis of Evil."
Benito Mussolini
(1883 - 1945) leader of Italy during the Second World War. He promised to bring glory to Italy through the acquisition of territories that it had been denied after the First World War Under his guidance, Italy became a member of the Axis.
Significance - As the founder of fascism, his ideas had a direct impact on Hitler. Italy did not do well
during World War II under his rule, and he was eventually murdered by some of his own people.
Munich Conference
This was a meeting held in September 1938 where European politicians met to discuss policy regarding the German occupation of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. Attended by
representatives of Italy, France, Great Britain, and Germany, the meeting allowed Germany to annex
the Sudetenland and revealed how most democratic nations dealt with Hitler's aggressive territorial
expansion: they gave him what he wanted.
Significance - This was a classic example of "appeasement" by Great Britain and France which only
delayed but did not prevent the outbreak of World War II. It also contributed to Stalin's distrust of
Western European democracies which had not included him in the negotiations.
appeasement
This was the policy followed by the French and British governments in dealing with
Hitler before World War II. Neither of the leaders of these countries wanted to confront Hitler as he
repeatedly violated the Versailles Treaty and took over territory that was not assigned to Germany in
the peace settlement after World War I.
Significance - This policy showed Hitler that most other countries were afraid to stand up to him
and that no one wanted to risk a military confrontation. This only encouraged him more and probably made the outbreak of World War II inevitable.
Blitzkreig
This term refers to Germany's technique of using tanks, planes, railroads, and intricate
planning to win rapid victories in Poland, France, and other European countries. The literal
translation of the term from German is "lightning war."
Significance - Germany's ability to conquer countries quickly put the Allies at a disadvantage in the
first years of World War II. German success in this type of war also revealed the ineffectiveness of
other militaries in adapting to the potential of modern weapons.
Stalingrad
This was a Russian city attacked by German troops in June 1942. It became the site of a
pivotal battle in which Russian troops dug in and stopped the German advance in the USSR.
Significance - The Germans lost approximately 330,000 troops who were either killed or captured in
this six month battle. It was the key battle of World War II. After the German defeat here, Hitler's
forces spent most of the rest of the war on the defensive.
island hopping
This was the process of capturing key Pacific islands to be used as military and air bases by the Allied forces in WWII. This strategy bypassed many islands held by the Japanese in the interest of eventually attacking Japan directly.
Significance - This strategy saved time and lives as the United States worked to weaken Japan's
naval empire in the Pacific
kamikaze
These were Japanese pilots who were equipped with explosives and just enough fuel in
their planes to reach Allied ships and crash into them. Their name is a reference to the "divine wind"
that had destroyed a Mongol invasion force sent against Japan many centuries earlier.
Significance- These pilots delayed Allied fleets in their conquest of the Pacific but ultimately proved
unsuccessful in preventing Allied attacks on the main islands of Japan.
Hiroshima
This was the city in Japan where the first atomic bomb was dropped by the US in 1945. It
killed 130,000 people.
Significance - The destruction of this city started Japan on the road to unconditional surrender to
the Allied Forces. Japan surrendered after a second atomic bomb was detonated over the city of
Nagasaki. The United States was the only country to have an atomic bomb at the end of World War II.
Auschwitz
This was the largest of all the Nazi concentration camps. A concentration camp was a
place where Jews or other persecuted people were sent. Most inmates died, their bodies cremated
and buried in mass graves. At least one million Jews perished here.
Significance - Camps like Auschwitz committed atrocious acts attempting to eliminate every Jew in
Europe. Approximately 5.7 million Jews were murdered during World War II.
comfort houses
These were houses of prostitution set up by the Japanese government where women of conquered territories were required to have sex with about 20 - 30 men a day. The women who worked in these establishments were mistreated and sometimes killed by soldiers for attempting to escape or possessing STD's. After the war, many of these women were executed to conceal Japan's prostitution operation.
Significance - The treatment of women in conquered territories reflected a general attitude of
superiority felt by the Japanese army toward other peoples in Asia.
Yalta
This resort on the Black Sea coast of the Crimea served as the setting for the second wartime
conference of leaders from the Soviet Union, The United States, and Great Britain in February 1945.
The main issue discussed at the conference centered on how to deal with the liberated countries of
Eastern Europe. Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Josef Stalin all attended this conference.
Significance - Churchill and FDR attempted to convince Stalin to allow democracy in some of the
Eastern Europe countries, especially Poland. Stalin remained firm, however, and all territories
liberated by the Soviets became communist and became occupied and controlled soviet armed
forces. Disagreements that were not resolved here later contributed to the development of a Cold
War between the former allies.
iron curtain
This was Winston Churchill's description of the boundary between communist Eastern
Europe and capitalist Western Europe. Foreign trade and travel between the East and the West were
severely limited.
Significance- Restricted emigration was one of the primary criticisms of the Soviet Union during the
Cold War
containment
This was the term used to describe the US foreign policy that opposed the spread of
communist governments in the 1940s and 1950s.
Significance - The United States wanted to avoid an open conflict with the USSR over the territories
that Soviet troops had already occupied after World War II. However, the US wanted to stop the
spread of communism beyond its sphere of influence in 1948. NATO was created in order to give this
policy some credibility.
The Marshall Plan
(a.k.a. the European Recovery Plan) The US Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed to rebuild European economies through cooperation and capitalism program after World War II. The aid was available to any government that applied for help and was allocated according to plans submitted by the governments seeking funds. It provided over $13 billion to reconstruct Western Europe and prompted the Soviet Union to establish COMECON as an Eastern European alternative to the Marshall Plan.
Significance - This program prevented communist/Soviet influence from increasing in many European nations after World War II. The money that was sent to West Germany helped to fuel an economic
recovery there that was relatively complete by the mid 1950s.
NATO
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) This was an alliance created in 1949 to serve as
a military counterweight to the Soviet forces in Europe. It was part of the struggle for political
dominance of Europe between the United States and the Soviet Union. According to the treaty, an
attack on one would be considered an attack on all; its members included Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the USA; Turkey
and Greece joined in 1952; West Germany joined in 1954
Significance - This organization was devoted to safeguarding the freedom of Atlantic peoples and was
also designed to encourage political, economic, and social cooperation among its members. Many
other countries have joined since the demise of the USSR in 1991.
Warsaw Pact
It was a military alliance of seven communist nations created by the Soviet Union in response to the inclusion of West Germany in NATO in 1955. It ended up being the primary rival of NATO. Member countries originally included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
Significance - This alliance continued to increase the level of competition and hostility between the
Soviet Union and the US. It was a defining part of the early Cold War and showed how the Soviet
Union was determined to ensure their status as a superpower.
Berlin Wall
This was a barrier constructed in 1961 dividing East and West Berlin It began as a single line of barbed wire, but quickly grew to include masonry, watch towers, search lights, antipersonnel mines, and border guards who were ordered to shoot to kill. It was demolished in 1989 as one of the first steps in the re-unification of Germany.
Significance - It accomplished its purpose of stemming the flow of refugees, though at the cost of
shaming a regime that obviously lacked legitimacy among its own people.
MAD
This is the acronym for mutually assured destruction. This state of affairs was reached by US
and the Soviet Union by 1970 due to their increasing emphasis on nuclear weapons in the arms race.
Significance - The fact that both of these world powers could each destroy the world alone,
contributed to a global fear of nuclear weapons. In turn, this fear contributed to the stalemate of the
Cold War.
Domino Theory
This foreign policy analysis predicted that if one country became communist, other countries in the same area would soon become communist as well.
Significance- After the Korean War it was becoming apparent that communism was spreading. Eastern Europe and China had also become communist in the five years after the conclusion of World War II. Many western leaders during this time, Dwight D. Eisenhower, became more threatened by communism. This analysis was a factor in the decision by the United States to send members of its military to Vietnam in the 1960s.
Fidel Castro
(1926 - Present) In 1959 Fidel Castro led a revolutionary movement that overthrew
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. Castro opposed U.S. imperialism and made promises of elections. Once
he was fully in power he nationalized foreign business holdings and set up a communist regime in
Cuba.
Significance- When Castro came to power, ties between Cuba and the United States were cut. More
problems were caused between the countries when Castro announced that he was a Marxist-Leninist.
For many years after Castro came to power, there were great conflicts between Cuba and the U.S.:
Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis
Nikita Khrushchev
(1894-1971) - He was the premier of the Soviet Union who took power after the death of Stalin in 1952. He challenged the United States politically and economically claiming that the communist system would eventually out produce capitalism. In one speech directed against the capitalist West, he boasted "we will bury you." The Soviet success in launching Sputnik in 1957 seemed to indicate that his claims might turn out to be true
Significance - He followed a less repressive path as the leader of the USSR after Stalin. He lost
power soon after his efforts to locate nuclear weapons in Cuba resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Brezhnev Doctrine
(Doctrine of Limited Sovereignty) - a policy used by the Soviet Premier to justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. This doctrine reserved the Soviet Union's right to invade any socialist country that Soviet leaders deemed to be threatened by internal or external elements "hostile to socialism."
Significance - Enabled the USSR to dominate Eastern Europe through threat of military intervention.
Gorbachev eventually repudiated this policy and consequently provided for the independence of
countries in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s.
Détente
This term was used to describe a reduction in tensions between the Soviet Union and United States during the 1960s and 1970s. Higher tensions returned in 1979 with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Because US diplomats felt betrayed, this policy lost credibility with the US leadership, particularly President Reagan and those in his administration.
Significance - Superpower relations during the Cold War seemed to improve in the face of economic
challenges that made continuing the arms race difficult for both powers.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Leader of the Muslim League in India. He promoted Muslim separatism in India while Gandhi was trying to unite India and not have separation between Hindus and Muslims. Jinnah said that "the only solution to India's problem is Pakistan."
Significance - Under his leadership, many Muslims in India rioted against the Hindus and these riots,
especially the Great Calcutta Killing, led to the formation of Pakistan as a separate country for
Muslims. 6000 people died in the Great Calcutta Killing (a big riot between Hindus and Muslims) and
this supported Jinnah's opinion.
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1889-1964) He was the first prime minister of India after India had gained its independence from Britain. He supported Gandhi's idea of a united India. Nehru favored a nonalignment (neutral) policy during the Cold War, though India accepted military aid from the USSR.
Significance - He was a major supporter of Gandhi and brought up the option of nonalignment at the
Bandung conference during the Cold War. Due to him, there were many countries that chose to stay
neutral during the Cold War.
Nonalignment
a policy of neutrality during the Cold War. It was promoted by India's prime minister,
Nehru. Nonalignment gave countries the option of choosing not to side with either superpower and
make enemies, but instead remaining completely neutral and keeping out of the whole mess. Though
it was a good idea, the movement suffered from a lack of unity among its members.
Significance - Countries (especially ones that were newly independent) were able to avoid making
dangerous enemies and could "declare independence" from the cold war through this policy.
Bandung Conference
This was a meeting of representatives of 29 African and Asian nations, held at Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955. The aim was to promote economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism, which was more or less achieved in an atmosphere of cordiality. China played a prominent part and strengthened its friendly relations with other Asian nations. Not invited to the conference were South Africa, Israel, Taiwan, South Korea, and North Korea.
Significance - The conference ultimately led to the establishment of the Nonaligned Movement in
1961. In later years, conflicts between the nonaligned nations eroded the solidarity expressed at
Bandung.
Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO)
This organization was created in 1954 to defend
noncommunist countries in Southeast Asia. The treaties that were made by SEATO had goals of
economic, social, and cultural gain. Signatories included Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand,
Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the USA.
Significance - SEATO was ultimately created to help vulnerable (non-communist) countries after the
Korean War. The organization was successful in its actions until 1977 when it dissolved (two years
after US withdrawal from Vietnam). This is an example of the US policy of "containment" with regard
to the spread of communism after World War II.
Ho Chi Minh
He was the communist leader of North Vietnam from 1945 - 1968. Although he received some of his education in Paris, he led the independence movement that drove the French out. He also led the communist opposition to United States influence in Southeast Asia.
Significance - His leadership demonstrated that a less developed country could successfully oppose
European and American forces in order to establish an independent communist state.
Intifada
a popular mass movement that began in 1987 in the Arab world. It initiated a series of demonstrations, strikes, strikes and riots against Israeli rule in the Gaza strip and other occupied territories. Violent actions followed on both sides which continued into the twenty-first century
Significance - This movement demonstrates the strong feelings and difficulty in resolving the
disputes over the Palestinian / Israeli territory.
Anwar Sadat
(1918-1981) he replaced Egypt's presidents Nasser. He masterminded a Yom Kippur surprise attack on Israel, yet also facilitated in the peace process. Not all of Egypt favored his peace treaties and opponents of his party assassinated him.
Significance - Despite his early pro-war policies, he later traveled to Israel to attempt to break a
deadlock. The leaders between the two countries, Israel and Egypt, eventually signed peace treaties.
Suez Crisis
In 1956, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and used the money collected to build the Aswan Dam on the Nile. He did not allow for multinational control of the canal, and British, French, and Israeli forces took over the Canal, but were forced out by the USA condeming their actions.
Significance - Egypt solidified hold over Suez Canal at the expense of the British and French forces.
This enhanced the status of Nasser in the Arab world and signaled the end of traditional imperialism
in the Middle East.
FLN
(National Liberation Front) Used guerrialla warfare to combat the French in the Algerian War of
Liberation in 1954.
Significance - Forced France to send half a million soldiers to fight to retain control of Algeria. In
spite of French efforts, Algeria gained independence in 1962.
Frantz Fanon
(1925-1961) An Algerian revolutionary who urged the use of violence to combat colonial
oppressors. He wrote The Wretched of the Earth in 1961.
Significance - He helped to shape the way the Algerian War of Independence was fought using
violence.
Kwame Nkrumah
Leader of the successful independence movement in Ghana who became the political leader there from 1957 until his death in 1972. He was a champion of pan-African unity.
Significance - He was the leader of the first successful independence movement in Sub-Saharan
Africa after World War II. His success set a precedent for other leaders across Africa.
Nelson Mandela
(1918-) A South African statesman and African National Congress leader who was in prison from 1961 to 1990 for his opposition to apartheid in South Africa. After his release he became President of South Africa in 1994.
Significance - His elevation from prison to the Presidency of South Africa reflects the political change
that has taken place in South Africa over the last 40 years.
ANC
(African National Congress) An organization created to represent the interests of Black Africans in South Africa and was founded in 1912. Its role became increasingly contentious in the face of apartheid policies instituted by the South African government. It supported the publication of the Freedom Charter in 1955 that proclaimed the ideal of a multiracial democratic rule in South Africa. It eventually became the ruling party after apartheid policies were abandoned in the 1990s.
Significance - This organization represented native interests in opposition to policies created to serve European settlers. Their longtime leader Nelson Mandela was elected as South Africa's first black
president in 1994
Apartheid
This was a racial policy in South Africa. It involved a strict segregation of Black, White, and "Coloured" people in land ownership, residence, marriage, work, education, religion, and sport. Although this system had been established informally in earlier times, it was institutionalized through legislation in 1948. It designated abut 87% of South African territory to White residents.
Significance - This system evolved into a system designed to keep blacks in political, social, and
economic subordination but was eventually abandoned by the South African government in the 1990s.
Great Leap Forward
(1958-1961) programs designed to accelerate development in China and to distinguish Chinese communism from Soviet. Also lampooned as the "Giant Step Backwards".
Significance - it hampered the political and economic development that Mao so urgently sought. It
was more disastrous for agriculture than helpful to Industry. Farmers were exhausted, did not meet
quotas and had a series of bad harvests, which caused one of the worst famines ever. Thousands of
people are believed to have died from starvation as a result.
Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution
(1966-1976) another program in communist China which failed miserably. Mao sought to purge the upper middle-class bureaucrats, artists, and intellectuals through execution, imprisonment, humiliation, or "resettlement." Intended to "purify" Chinese communism, it was also an attempt by Mao to renew his absolute dominance over the Chinese government. Much of the work of this program was carried out by the semi military Red Guard, most of them students.
Significance - Universities were closed from 1966 - 1970 and many other schools limited their
curricula to the written works of Mao.
Deng Xiaoping
(1904-1997) Mao's successor as the political leader of communist China. He introduced a radical economic modernization program in the 1980s and orchestrated the suppression of the Chinese democracy movement in June of 1989.
Significance - He came into power in 1981 and moved away from Mao's commitment to Chinese self-
sufficiency and engineered China's entry into the international financial and trading system. He
opened the nation to foreign and capitalist values by sending many student to foreign universities.
Tianamen Square
June 1989 Students in favor of democratic reforms in China demonstrated in this Beijing location. Deng Xiaoping was wary of change and he approved a bloody crackdown. As many as 2000 demonstrators were killed here.
Significance - crushing the student's movement created hostile world opinion . Since that time
change in China has been more economic than political.
Indira Gandhi
(1917-1984) The daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru. (***NO RELATION TO MOHANDAS
GANDHI***). Her efforts to increase the production of food and limit population growth met with mixed success. In a later office term, she attempted to quell a rebellion by the Sikhs, a religious minority in Punjab who desired autonomy. After she ordered an attack on one of their sacred sites, two of her Sikh bodyguards assassinated her.
Significance - She became the leader of the Congress Party and served as prime minister of India from
1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 to 1984.
Islamism
A desire to reassert Islamic values in Muslim politics. This view believed that the Muslim world had been slipping into a state of decline, brought about by the abandonment of Islamic issues. They are skeptical about the Western models of economic development. Although many desired to do so with peaceful means, there were some extremists who claim that a mandate from God calls for violent transformations; this is also referred to as jihad.
Significance - this movement attempted to bring the Islamic values and traditions back, for they believe that they were in decline. Specific examples of this movement would include the government of Iran after 1978 and the Wahabbi movement in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Islamic world.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
(1900-1989) An Iranian Shiite leader who was named Ayatollah (supreme religious leader) in the 1950s. In 1979 Khomeini led the Islamist movement that declared Iran a republic and began to exercise ultimate authority in Iran.
Significance - His views were largely anti-American and his rule was largely known for the Iran
hostage crisis and the Iran-Iraq War.
Lazaro Cardenas
The president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940.
Significance- Following the constitution redistributed forty-five million acres of land to peasants, and
took control of the Mexican oil wells away from foreign
PRI
The "Institutional Revolutionary Party" that controlled the conservative governments in Mexico
from 1929 until 2000.
Significance- The PRI often ruled harshly and experimented with various economic strategies that
decreased or increased Mexico's dependence on foreign markets and capital.
Juan Peron
(1895-1974) A former colonel in the Argentine army elected president of Argentina in
1946 and held power until 1955, and then again in 1973 and 1974 A nationalistic militarist whose
regime garnered immense popularity among large segments of the Argentinean population. His wife,
Eva, became a cult figure in Argentina.
Significance - He promoted a nationalistic populism, calling for industrialization, support of the
working class, and protection of the economy from foreign control.
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1931- still living) He is the former Soviet leader who came into power in 1985 and lost power in 1991. He tried to save the Soviet Union from disintegration by reconstructing the Soviet economy and liberalizing Soviet society. His economic reforms in the late 1980s unleashed anti-Communist forces from within and without, and eventually led to the collapse of the Soviet Union and disappearance of the Soviet empire in Europe.
Significance - He was the last leader of the Soviet Union. His attempts to modernize communism
there brought an end to the USSR and the Cold War.
Solidarity
This organization started out as a trade union but eventually became the leading force
in a nationalist movement in Poland that forced the communist leaders out of power there. Its most
notable leader, Lech Walesa, started out as a ship's electrician and eventually became the first
President of an independent Poland.
Significance - This organization symbolized the growing resistance to communist rule that took place
in Eastern Europe in the 1980s.
Velvet Revolution
This was the name given to the collapse of communist government in Czechoslovakia in 1990. The name is considered appropriate because this change involved very little violence since the communists who formerly ruled with an iron fist just sat back and allowed the
transition to democracy to occur.
Significance - This transition to a capitalist economy and a more inclusive form of government
demonstrated the weakness of communist leadership in Eastern Europe in the early 1990s . The
creation of a more democratic government contributed to the break up of Czechoslovakia into the
Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993.
Perestroika
It was a program of reform instituted by Gorbachev to get Russia out of its economic
coma. Its main goal was to decentralize the economy but it tended to alienate those individuals
whose wealth and power was a direct result of the old ways. It was linked to the glasnost.
Significance - Many of Gorbachev's former supporters despised perestroika and worked to destroy it.
By doing this they also undermined Gorbachev and hurt the Soviet effort at economic revival.
Glasnost
It was a policy that opened the Soviet government to public criticism and led to admission of past mistakes. Under this policy, government censorship of the media was dramatically reduced and reprisals against those who criticized the communist system in the Soviet Union also dropped off significantly. The rationale for this "openness" was the need to bring about reform that would strengthen the USSR in the face of continued competition with the West.
Significance - It led to the bubbling up of repressed ethnic and nationalist sentiments. This was a
huge threat to the Soviet state which was comprised of many ethnic minorities, many of whom were
never fully reconciled to Soviet dominance.
GATT
(General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade)
An international trade agreement established in 1948 by the United Nations. Members pledged to
reduce tariffs and other barriers in International trade. Poorer countries felt that its terms favored the
more developed countries. It was replaced by the World Trade Organization in 1995.
Significance - another organization promoting economic globalization. It had 125 members in 1994.
Its members accounted for an estimated 90% of world trade at that time.
WTO
also known as World Trade Organization; 123 member nations of GATT signed an agreement
to establish this to take over the activities of GATT in 1995. More than thirty other nations
have joined since it was created. It has a wider role than GATT in promoting the exchange of
telecommunications technology, intellectual property rights, and trade in services.
Significance- One of the primary examples of globalization, it is strongly supported by some for its
goal of eliminating poverty but attacked by others who fear that world culture will lose much of its
diversity in the effort to achieve global capitalism
Global Corporations
rely on small headquarters staff while dispersing all other corporate functions
across the globe in search of the lowest possible operating costs; treat world as single market and
act as if the nation-state no longer exists. Siemens AG, Nestle, and General Motors are examples of
these types of companies.
Significance- increasingly replaced more traditional international or multinational forms of corporate
enterprises; have become symbols of new economy and has begun to transform political and social
landscape of many societies; transformations of corporate landscape has resulted in the birth of some
50,000 global corporations
Little Tigers
the nickname gained by Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan for their remarkable and rapid growth rates; since all these countries had a low amount of capital, they imitated Japanese model for economic development, which was export-driven industrialization
Significance - by the 1980s these four countries became major economic powers and still to the
present take part largely in the world's economy
EU
became successor to European Community in 1993; the development of a supranational organization dedicated to increasing European economic and political integration culminated in the Maestricht Treaty of 1993, which established the EU; characterized by common market and free trade
Significance - fifteen European nations have submerged much of their national sovereignty in the EU, and since 1999, eleven members have adopted common currency; economic cooperation has helped
them distance themselves from the USA; most famous and most strongly integrated regional bloc. Ten more nations will join this group in 2004.
OPEC
(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) A multinational organization established in 1960 by oil-producing states. It was started to raise the price of oil through cooperation as in 1973 during the Arab-Israeli War. As a result, oil prices quadrupled in a three-month period. Member nations included Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, and Gabon. Ecuador withdrew in 1993 and Gabon withdrew in 1996.
Significance - the creation of OPEC showed how dependent the world was on oil and how the
countries selling it were determined to use it to gain power. It allowed for smaller countries who
joined not to get pressured by stronger countries to sell their oil too cheap.
ASEAN
(Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Economic partnership established in 1967 by Southeast Asian countries. It was made to accelerate economic development and promote political stability in SE Asia.
Significance-this partnership helped in uniting most of SE Asia by establishing a free-trade zone for 15
yrs and by working against the spread of communism.
Wangguan
refers to the English word firewall. This firewall on Chinese internet blocks direct U.S.
influence on the Chinese people. It also prevents complete access to the internet for the Chinese
people.
Significance - Chinese people have become more concerned with U.S. cultural and political influence
on China's communist society. By blocking these ideas using wangguan, the government can have
better control over the people.
Club of Rome
A group of economists and scientists in 1967 tried to specify population and economic growth in relation to the capacity of the Earth. The club issued their report in 1972 entitled "The Limits to Growth"
Significance- The Club of Rome's report showed a pessimistic view on the future of humanity. Their
basic predictions are plausible, but some have been proven incorrect. The club has shown that
speculation cannot always be relied on.
Taliban
This fundamental Islamic government formed out of the disorder and devastation of the Afghan-Soviet War. These rulers enforced a strict Islamic policy on their peoples, which included the abolishment of television, movies, and western style clothes.
Significance - The Taliban represent a form of radically religious government who limit freedoms and use violence as a means to attain control. The Taliban were eventually smashed by US attacks after refusing to turn over Osama Bin Laden.
Al-Qaeda
Known as "the base" this is the central component of the network of terrorist
organizations.
Significance - Headed by Osama bin Laden, this group and bin Laden put together the September 11th
attacks in 2001.
NGO
Stands for Nongovernmental Organizations. These organizations, which include the Red Cross
and Greenpeace, are not controlled by any one government and often are active in many different
countries.
Significance - These organizations have the ability to tackle problems that do not respect territorial
boundaries and are beyond the reach of national governments.
Jean Henri Dunant
This Swiss philanthropist who founded the Red Cross in 1864. This NGO gives aid to wounded soldiers, prisoners of war, and civillians in war zones.
Significance - The Red Cross is one example of an NGO that has allegiances to no
one nation, and gives aid to victims of war regardless of nationality.
Feminist Movement
Motivated by the discrimination that women faced in the workplace, women found that political rights did not guarantee economic or sexual equality. In the 1960's, after women had endured job discrimination, lower wages for women and lack of legal equality, women began to criticize all aspects of gender inequality.
Significance - In a changing society after the Second World War, women were finally acknowledged
when they illustrated their unfair treatment and continuing male dominance in a civilized society.
Benazir Bhutto
(1953 - 2007) Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 - 1990 and again from 1993 - 1996; she was an effective leader of Pakistan having been raised by a father who himself was elected to serve as Prime Minister in the 1970s. She was assassinated by an Islamic extremist after she returned to Pakistan to seek election to a third term as Prime Minister.
Significance - She is one woman that has been elected to a position of power in South Asia, breaking
down political barriers and barriers against women's rights. She was also the first woman to be
elected to be the head of state in an Islamic country.
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi
(1945 - ) She remains one of the most important leaders of the pro-democracy
movement in Myanmar (formerly Burma).
Significance - She called for non-violent revolution against Myanmar government; awarded the Nobel
Peace Prize in 1991 when under house arrest.
marriage law
Passed in 1950 by communist leaders in China, this law declared a "new democratic
marriage system, which is based on free choice of partners, on monogamy, on equal rights for both
sexes, and on protection of the lawful interests of women and children", the law also abolished
patriarchal practices like child betrothal and upheld equal rights for men and women in the areas of
work, property ownership, and inheritance.
Significance - The passing of a law that demolished the Confucian values
of ancient Chinese society symbolized a changing China.
statistical disappearance
An unexplained diappearance of baby girls due to the restriction of one child per Chinese family. No one can officially account for the half a million unrecorded female births, but some speculate that the desire for a male child causes some parents to secretly put their girls up for adoption or kill them.
Significance -The disappearance of a significant number of Chinese baby girls proves that there still
is a superiority of maleness in the Chinese society even though measures have been made to do away
with these discriminatory Confucian values.
Dowry Deaths
dowries are the gifts of money or goods that were given to the husband and his family upon a woman's marriage a custom in India. this requirement is difficult for many families to meet- If the husband and his family perceive the dowry as inadequate, if the husband wants a new wife without returning the first wife's dowry, or even if the wife has simply annoyed the husband or her in-laws, the wife is doused with kerosene and set on fire, so that her death can be explained as a cooking accident
Significance - This makes the birth of a girl in India burdensome, and it is the issue that has most
dramatically illustrated the perilous status of women in south Asia. Some 700 official cases of dowry
deaths were reported in Delhi alone in 1983.
Guest workers
they were the migrants that migrated from a developing country to a developed
country in search of better opportunities. Since 1960 about thirteen million "guest workers" from
southern Europe, Turkey, and northern Africa have permanently moved to western Europe, and about
ten million migrants- mainly from Mexico- have taken up permanent residence in the USA.
Significance - Foreigners make up a great deal of the work force like in southwest Asia where
foreigners make up more than half of the working population of oil-producing countries.
MAD
mutually assured destruction
describes primary deterrent to nuclear strikes during the Cold War
SEATO
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
regional alliance established in 1954 to halt the spread of communism in Asia. Member nations included
Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States. Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia were considered "protocol states."
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
association set up in 1949 to provide for the collective defense of the major Western European and North
American states against the perceived threat from the USSR.
FLN
Front de Libération Nationale
movement in Algeria that used guerrilla warfare to oust French control in the 1950s
SALT
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
negotiations between the USA and the USSR to reduce the rate of nuclear-arms buildup. SALT I was an accord that was in effect from 1972 to 1977. SALT II was to take effect in 1979 but was never fully ratified by US Senate because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in that year.
START
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
a phase in US-Soviet peace discussions which began with talks in Geneva in 1983 and leading to the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty in 1987. These negotiations to reduce the number of nuclear weapons reached their culmination with the START treaty of 1991
INF
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty
agreement signed Dec. 8, 1987 between the US and the USSR to eliminate all ground based nuclear missiles in Europe that were capable of hitting only European targets (including European Russia. It reduced the two countries' arsenals by a total of 2000 warheads. (4% of the total)
PRI
Institutional Revolutionary Party
political party which dominated Mexican politics from the 1930s until the 1990s. After land reforms were
instituted by Lazaro Cardenas in 1940, this party became relatively conservative in its efforts to share power or make further changes.
PDR
Democratic Revolutionary Party
opposition party which challenged the PRI's dominance in Mexican politics. Cuauhtemoc Cardenas (son of Lazaro) emerged as a leader in the 1990s.
ANC
African National Congress
This organization was formed in 1912 by non-whites in South Africa to oppose white rule. It was one of the
primary organizations that resisted the rule of apartheid. Nelson Mandela emerged as one of its most volatile leaders in the 1950s.
PLO
Palestine Liberation Organization
Arab organization dedicated to the restoration of the state of Palestine and the destruction of the state of Israel. Its members have often resorted to terrorist acts to further awareness of their cause. Yasser Arafat has been this organization's most notable leader.
LDC
Less Developed Country
Characterized by low per capita income and little industrial development. Many African countries fall into this category.
NIEO
New International Economic Order
Organization created by a coalition of developing nations which called for a more just allocation of global wealth. To accomplish this redistribution of wealth, the NIEO seeks guarantees of prices and markets for their commodities. African nations were among the strongest supporters of this organization.
NIC
Newly Industrialized Countries
includes small countries such as Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan which have created strong export-driven economies that have challenged traditional economic powers such as Japan since the 1980s.
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
producer cartel originally started in 1960 by the oil-producing states of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. Qatar, Libya, Indonesia, Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, and Gabon joined later. Islamic dominance of this group led to a oil embargo between 1973 and 1975.
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
signed by the representatives of 23 noncommunist nations in 1947 to promote unrestricted global trade. By 1994 one hundred and twenty-three countries had joined this effort.
WTO
This group took over the activities of GATT in 1995.
ASEAN
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Regional trading alliance established in 1967 by the foreign ministers of Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore,
Indonesia, and the Philippines. Its primary goals were to accelerate economic progress and promote political
stability in southeast Asia. In 1992 member states agreed to establish a free-trade zone and to cut tariffs on industrial goods over a fifteen-year period.
EC
European Community
political and economic alliance formed in 1967 to expand trade, reduce competition, and abolish restrictive trade trading practices among its members. Its original members were Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. These countries were joined by UK, Denmark, and the Republic of Ireland in 1974. Greece joined in 1985 with Spain and Portugal coming aboard in 1986.
EU
European Union - became the successor to the European Community (EC) in 1993. Economic cooperation has helped this group to distance itself from the influence of the United States.
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Association
The United States, Canada, and Mexico created a free trade zone in 1993 with the intention of eventually
extending membership to all noncommunist countries in the Americas.
OAS
Organization of American States
founded in 1948 to replace the Pan-American Union. Thirty countries from North, Central, and South America were charter members. Its aims are to maintain peace and solidarity within the Western Hemisphere and facilitate social and economic development in Latin America.
OAU
Organization of African Unity
association established in 1963 to eradicate colonialism and improve economic, cultural and political cooperation in Africa. Headquarters is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
NOW
National Organization of Women
Organization created in the United States to promote the legal and professional equality of women.
ERA
Equal Rights Amendment
proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would have required gender equality in the courts and the workplace. It failed to win support of the required number of states by 1982 and did not become part of the U.S. constitution.
WHO
World Health Organization
a specialized agency for the United Nations that has worked to improve the health of those in LDCs.
NGO
nongovernmental international organizations
These are organizations that are able to take on problems that do not respect territorial boundaries and are beyond the reach of national governments. The Red Cross is a good example of this type of organization.
UN
United Nations - association of nation-states that became the successor to the League of Nations after World War II. Its charter was drawn up at the San Francisco conference in 1945 with the stated goals of promoting international peace, security, and cooperation.
Lucy
This was the name given to the hominid skeleton discovered at Hadar, Ethiopia in 1974.
Archaeologists have dated this particular Australopithecus to 3.5 million years ago. She is
believed to have walked upright and may have been able to use simple tools.
hominids
These were evolution's pre-humans known through fragmentary fossil evidence discovered
in East Africa. Archaeologists believe that some of these species may have been the
ancestors of modern humans.
Homo sapiens
This is the name of our species (modern humans). Many archaeologists believe our species
first appeared around 40,000 years ago.
Paleolithic
This is the formal name for the Old Stone Age which many archaeologists date from 3.5
million to about 12,000 years BP (Before the Present). They believe that human society was
characterized by hunting and gathering during this period.
Neanderthal
This was a Paleolithic human subspecies archaeologists believe first appeared around
200,000 years ago. Their careful burial rituals indicate similarity to modern humans.
Anthropologists disagree on whether this group is an ancestor of modern humans or a
branch of human evolution that turned out to be another dead end. (Did early modern
humans kill off this group or did they interbreed?)
Lascaux
This is a cave site in southern France where archaeologists believe early humans created
many paintings from 34,000 to 12,000 years ago. Most of the paintings depict hunting
scenes.
Neolithic
This is the formal name for the New Stone Age which many archaeologists date from 8,000-
6000 B.P. It is believed that during this time humans began the transition to agriculture.
agricultural transition
This is the term for a change that humans first experienced during the Neolithic period.
This change from a nomadic life of hunting and gathering to a more settled life of raising
crops continued to take place in many parts of the world long after the original Neolithic
Revolution is believed to have taken place in the Middle East. This change is also marked by
the development of higher human population densities. Jared Diamond wrote about this in
detail in his book Guns, Germs, and Steel.
specialization
Agriculture allowed some people to concentrate their efforts in areas not related to getting
food. Full-time scribes, builders, doctors, priests, and warriors were some of the new roles created.
domestication
This refers to an important aspect of early agricultural development in the Neolithic period
when animals were kept for food: sheep, goats, pigs, oxen, chicken. Another topic of
interest to Jared Diamond in his book Guns, Germs, and Steel.
Mesopotamia
This is a term used to describe a region in present-day Iraq. It specifically refers to the land
between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The world's earliest agriculture started here around
8000 B.C.E. and the first civilization started here around 4,000 B.C.E.
Sumer
This is the name given to a region in southern Mesopotamia where the earliest writing was
developed.
Epic of Gilgamesh
It was one of the first stories to be written down in ancient Sumeria and describes a Sumerian
prince who sought the secret to everlasting life.
cuneiform
Sumerian and Babylonian writing based on wedge shaped symbols
Babylonia
empire which dominated Mesopotamia until about 1600 BCE
Hammurabi
Babylonian king who is most famous for creating a written law code
Assyria
This empire dominated Mesopotamia after Babylonia (c. 1300 - 612 B.C.E.) Its cities of Assur and Ninevah housed some of the world's earliest libraries. The Assyrian army used chariots and promoted officers based on performance in battle rather than social class.
city-state
Type of government in which a city took control of territory close to the city. Ancient Sumer
was organized in this way until it was conquered by Sargon.
Moses
led Jews out of captivity in Egypt. His story is found in Exodus of the Old Testament and in
the Torah.
Phoenicians
Seafaring people of area that is today called Lebanon. They created a phonetic alphabet,
expanded overseas trade and established colonies in Sicily, N Africa, and Spain.
Sudanic
Refers to the large savanna and grassland region in Africa that serves as the transition zone between
the Sahara Desert in the north and the rain forests of Central Africa. About 9000 B.C.E. people of
this region domesticated cattle and by 7500 they had begun to domesticate sorghum and yams.
Nubia
Region south of Egypt where the Kingdom of Kush developed.
Menes
First pharaoh to unite upper and lower Egypt. He is also called Narmer by some archaeologists.
Khufu
Pharaoh of Egypt who built the largest pyramid. He is also called Cheops by some archaeologists.
Hyksos
Semitic people of SW Asia who conquered and dominated Egypt for more than 100 years (1674 -1550 B.C.E.). Their use of horses, chariots, and bronze weapons gave them significant advantages over their Egyptian adversaries. Egyptian forces adopted the techniques and technology of these conquerors and drove them out prior to the establishment of the New Kingdom pharaohs.
hieroglyphics
Originally a picture based writing that appeared in Egypt at least by 3200 B.C.E. It evolved
to include representing sounds and ideas. Egyptians inscribed this writing on monuments
and buildings (especially temples) as well as on sheets of papyrus. The Rosetta stone enabled
archaeologists to decipher this writing.
Akhenaten
pharaoh who unsuccessfully promoted monotheistic worship of the single god, Aten (1353 - 1355 B.C.E.)
Kush
Kingdom south of Egypt on the Nile that conquered and ruled Egypt from 750 to 664 B.C.E. This kingdom developed its own alphabet but is not yet deciphered. Like the ancient Egyptians, they used the Nile for irrigation of their crops.
Bantu
People of West Africa who migrated South and East from 1000 BCE-1000 CE. They spread
agricultural practices and their language as they migrated to most of sub-Saharan Africa.
Carthage
Phoenician colony that became the center of as trade empire that included much of what is today Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Spain. This city was eventually destroyed as a result of the three Punic wars with Rome.
Dravidians
indigenous people of India whose early cities demonstrated rigid planning and modern attitudes about sanitation. After the Aryan migration, many of these people became members of the lower castes or moved into southern India. Their early culture is sometimes referred to as "Harappan" after the ancient city of Harappa.
Mohenjo-Daro
Dravidian city in the Indus River valley. Its streets were laid out in a grid pattern with intersections set up to have cross-streets at 90 degree angles. Its indoor plumbing predated that of many European cities by more than 1500 years.
Aryan
Indo-Europeans who migrated to India c.1500 BCE, dominated Indus & Ganges valleys by 1000 BCE Many of their ideas contributed to the development of Hindu beliefs. (Caste and sacred cows)
Sanskrit/Prakrit
Written language for sacred texts/ Written language for everyday communication
The Vedas
Sacred texts that serve as some of the earliest written texts for Hindu beliefs. They preserved much of Aryan culture, includes hymns, songs, prayers, rituals.
caste
System of social classes that developed in India after the Aryan migration. Brahmins- priests, non- Aryans were in lower castes or "outcasts." Skin color (varna) is also a factor in determining status: darker = lower. Each caste is divided into jati or sub-castes that are generally determinined by one's profession. There were thousands of these sub-castes in the pre-colonial social system in India.
Brahman
universal soul, the ultimate destination of all souls
Upanishads
Sacred texts of Hindu belief that taught that all persons are a part of Brahman
karma
Hindu belief that identifies the nature of force generated by each action It determines the path of reincarnation. Virtuous action results in the accumulation of the positive aspect of this force.
moksha
Hindu concept of unity with Brahman that is achieved through reincarnation. This event ends a soul's cycle of rebirths.
sati
Literally means "virtuous woman." In some parts of India a wife is expected to join her deceased
husband on his funeral fire. This was a way for a woman to demonstrate her devotion to her
husband.
Xia
Early Chinese dynasty that was devoted to flood control, founded by Yu c. 2200 BCE
Shang
Dynasty whose kingdom in China followed that of the Xia kings (c. 1766-1122 BCE). These
rulers made use of bronze weapons, chariots, writing, city walls to expand their power and
control of the common people.
Zhou
Dynasty that ruled China from 1122-256 BCE. Their early success was based on effective
diplomatic skills and a strong army. The introduction of iron metallurgy contributed to a series of revolts and civil wars in its last two hundred years
Period of Warring States
c. 403-221 BCE, last centuries of Zhou when the introduction of iron metallurgy encouraged
revolts and civil war. This was the period when Confucius developed his philosophy.
Mandate of Heaven
Zhou concept: - heavenly powers grant right to govern to "son of heaven" as long as the ruler
maintains honor & justice.
patriarchy
Society in which families look to the oldest male as the authority and decision maker
oracle bones
Used by fortune tellers who inscribed questions into tortoise shell, exposed the inscribed shells
to extreme heat, and waited for it to crack to read fortune. Archaeologists view these as some of the earliest examples of Chinese writing.
The Book of Songs
Anthology of Chinese poetry from the Zhou period. It serves as one of the best examples of
China's earliest literary tradition, since most of Zhou literature has perished.
Confucius
Philosopher who emphasized the need for virtuous behavior and traditional social order.
Yangzi
River in southern China also known as the Chang Jiang. Rice first cultivated here c.7000 BCE
Olmecs
Earliest agricultural society in the Americas (c.1200 - 100 BCE) This society developed along what is today called the Gulf of Mexico. These people are noted for the pyramids and colossal stone heads they made. Archaeologists have named their earliest urban center San Lorenzo.
Maya
Native American people whose civilization developed writing and imitated much of Olmec culture in their buildings, art, and religion. Their dominance in southern Mexico lasted from about 400 - 900 C.E. Some of their most important cities included Tikal, Chichén Itzá, Palenque, Uxmal, and Tulum.
Teotihuacan
City in central Mexico, at height had 50,000 people, large Sun and Moon pyramids, declined after 650 CE
maize
staple crop of Mesoamerica by 5000 BCE. We call this corn today.
cacao
Type of bean that was cultivated by Mayas. It is the primary source of chocolate.
Popol Vuh
creation story of Mayas which told of gods making people from maize
Mochica
Native American culture in the Andes region of South America from about 100 - 800 C.E. They are particularly noted for their elaborate painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions and irrigation systems
Austronesian
people of SE Asia, migrated to Polynesia, Micronesia, and Madagascar, Helped to spread agricultural practices and their language to New Guinea, the Pacific islands, and Madagascar.
outrigger
canoes used by Austronesian people to reach remote islands in the Pacific Ocean
Malagasy
language spoken today in Madagascar, one branch of Austronesian languages
Achemenid Empire
Cyrus first built this empire that extended beyond modern Iran. Darius extended this empire so that it became the largest up to that time. He also issued standardized coins, divided his territory into satrapies, and sponsored the creation of good roads. This empire lasted from 558- 330 BCE.
DariusP
Persian ruler whose empire was the largest up to that time, issued standardized coins, divided
his territory, made good roads
Persepolis
new Persian capital of Achaemenid dynasty under Darius
satrapies
Achaemenid Persia was divided into 23 districts each ruled by satrap. Each satrap was
appointed by the emperor and kept his job based on the amount of tax revenues and soldiers
sent to the emperor.
Seleucid Empire
(323-83 BCE) Alexander the Great's former general Seleucus- controlled Persia after Alexander the Great died. faced rebellions by satraps and Parthians
Parthian Empire
(247 BCE-224 CE) This empire was generally characterized by a lack of centralized rule.
Instead it was organizede as a federation of leaders with a capital at Ctesiphon. Their strong
military prevented conquest of Persia by Roman legions. Mithridates I was successful in
defeating remnant of Seleucid Empire, taking Media and Babylonia in the process (circa 147
BCE). Persia, Bactria, and Elam later became part of this empire as well.
Sassanid Empire
(224-651 CE) Imitated old Achaemenid Empire in government structure and culture. It
encouraged trade but was conquered by Arab forces who were spreading Islam.
qanat
underground canals developed by Persians for purposes of irrigation
Zarathustra
Persian religious leader whose beliefs inspire the development of Zoroastrianism in the late 7th cent. BCE. His visons of god Ahura Mazda promoted a belief in the struggle between good
and evil.
The Avesta
Zoroastrian book of teachings, wrote down oral traditions of the Gathas. Much of these
writings were subsequently lost when most inhabitants of Persia converted to Islam.
magi
Zoroastrian priests who preserved Zoroaster's teachings through an oral tradition until they
were finally written down during the Seleucid and Sassanid dynasties.
Confucius
(5th cent. BCE) He was a philosopher whose teachings became the basis of traditional Chinese society. His most important written work was the Analects. He taught about the five relationships as the basis of a stable society.
junzi
(morally) superior individuals, who gov't should hire
xiao
filial piety, respect for relatives and ancestors
Meniscus
leading disciple of Confucius
dao
passive force or "the way" A philosophy that calls for its followers to live in harmony with nature through acceptance of balance as represented by the concepts of yin and yang. The legendary founder of this belief system was Laozi who is believed to have lived in the sixth century BCE. His most important written work was the Daodejing.
wuwei
Daoist belief in disengagement from human society. The life of a hermit is the ideal.
Legalism
This was a Chinese philosophy which valued military and farming and advocated strict laws and harsh punishments. It called for collective responsibility in matters of paying taxes and following orders. The earliest proponent of this philosophy was Han Fei zi who is believed to have written one of the most important books regarding this philosophy: The Book of Lord Shang.
Qin Shihuangdi
(2nd cent BCE) He was the first Qin emperor. He buried scholars and burned books in an effort to eradicate Confucian beliefs. His tomb contained thousands of terra cotta warriors. His work in centralizing government resulted in the name "China" being derived from the dynastic name "Qin."
Liu Bang
Revolutionary who started the Han dynasty. He was a determined commander who returned centralized rule after revolt against Qin dynasty
Xiongnu
nomadic people from C. Asian steppes, good horsemen, threat to Han China
Faxian
Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India searching for original Buddhist texts during reign of Chandra Gupta II. His return to China with copies of these texts inspired new growth for Buddhism in China
jati
subcastes, based on occupation
Vardhamana Mahavira
founder of Jainism - based on Hindu beliefs but with a strict ascetic lifestyle
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism, condemned strict asceticism, born royalty but ran away to see world, rejected caste system
nirvana
escape from cycle of reincarnation, spiritual awakening. Associated with Buddhism and Hinduism.
dharma
basic doctrine of Buddhism- 8 fold path, 4 noble truths. For Hinduism - religious duty, which included acceptance of the caste into which you are born
ahimsa
belief in non-violence that is observed in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. This doctrine extends beyond treatment of humans to also include reverence for all animal life. Vegetarian diets are common among people who hold this belief to be important.
Mahayana
This is a less strict form of Buddhism which maintains that nirvana is achievable through the 8 fold path. They believe that a person need not become a monk to achieve liberation of one's soul.
Boddhistavas
Those souls who have already achieved Nirvana but come back to help others reach it as well
Bhagavad Gita
excerpt from the Mahabharata, "song of the lord", short poetic work, illustrates expectations and promise of Hinduism. Hindu god Krishna tells Arjuna that everyone must follow their destiny.
Knossos
the capital of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete
Sparta
city-state which emphasized military training. Its armies were important in the defeat of Persian invaders as well as the Greek city-state of Athens in the Peloponnesian War. Allowed women to own property and achieve citizen status.
Athens
city-state made wealthy through maritime trade. Citizenship was open to adult males. Education incorporated intellectual and military training. Strong navy defeated the Persians at the battle of Salamis. Philosophy and drama were highly developed here.
Massalia
Greek colony founded around 600 BCE in what is today southern France. It later became the modern city of Marseilles.
Marathon
Battle where Athenians and their allies defeated Persian invading force in 490 BCE
Philip of Macedon
Battle where Athenians and their allies defeated Persian invading force in 490 BCE
Alexandria
City that was founded by Alexander the Great in northern Egypt. It later became the capital of the Ptolemaic empire that ruled after Alexander's death. Its location at the mouth of Nile contributed to its great wealth and status as the cultural capital of Hellenistic world, The library there was widely believed to be the most complete repository of ancient manuscripts in the Mediterranean world. Most of those manuscripts were lost in a great fire in the first century BCE.
Plato
He was a student of Socrates who became an important philosopher. He is best known for his book, The Republic
Aristotle
Philosopher who was a student of Plato. His writings on the natural world served as the basis for science for more than a thousand years.
Greek dramatists
Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides wrote tragedies. Aristophanes wrote comedies. The works of these playwrights are among the earliest examples of works written for public performance. Some of their plays are still read and performed today.
Etruscans
Indo-Europeans, dominated much of Italy from 8th - 5th cent. BCE. Their monarchy inspired the city of Rome to rebel and set up a republic to avoid the tyranny that had characterized Etruscan rule.
Punic Wars
A series of conflicts between Rome and Carthage, that first started due to conflicting interests in Sicily. Hannibal was most famous general from Carthage. His invasion of Italian peninsula ultimately failed to end Roman power. Rome eventually defeated and destroyed Carthage.
patricians
Upper class nobles who often controlled latifundias and generally dominated Roman government
plebians
Common people who often earned their living as farmers, shopkeepers, or urban laborers
Gracchi brothers
tribunes murdered because they favored land distribution that was unfavorable to patrician interests
Julius Caesar
Roman political leader who conquered Gaul & Britain and was later assassinated in the Senate
Augustus
(Octavian) He became the first Roman emperor. His civil service, census, and Pax Romana helped to make Rome a dominant power in the Mediterranean world.
Latifundia
These were large plantations that grew in importance during the Roman Empire. They were controlled by patrician families and worked by slaves. They largely displaced the small farms of the Roman Republic.
Spartacus
He was a former gladiator who raised an army of slaves in 73 B.C. in revolt against the Roman Republic. Although his forces experienced some early successes against the Roman forces sent out against him, he and his soldiers were eventually defeated and executed.
the Essenes
Jewish sect in Palestine during the 1st cent. BCE. Their strict moral code, emphasis on community and desire to find a savior are all cited as possible contributions to the development of Christianity.
Paul of Tarsus
Jew from Anatolia who preached Christianity with an emphasis on faith and morality that appealed to the masses. His travels helped to spread Christian beliefs around the Mediterranean world. His letters to various early churches became books of the New Testament: Ephesians, Gallatians, Romans, and others
stoicism
Hellenistic philosophy that claimed all humanity is part of a brotherhood. Believers in this philosophy felt a sense of responsibility to all of humanity. Some historians feel that this philosophy helped to set the stage for the spread of Christianity in the Mediterranean world.
Zhang Qian
envoy sent by Han emperor to find reinforcements against Xiongnu He was captured but escaped and returned to China with information about the trade networks in Central Asia.
monsoon system
Seasonal winds governed sailing and shipping in the Indian Ocean.
the Silk Roads
Ancient trade routes that extended from China in the east to the Roman Empire in the west.
Gang Ying
Chinese ambassador who embarked on a mission to western lands (Mesopotamia)
Nestorians
followers of the Greek theologian Nestorius. He emphasized Jesus as a human not as a divine person.
Manichaeism
Religion founded by the self-proclaimed prophet Mani, in the 3rd Century. This religion attempted to blend the beliefs of Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Buddhism.
Wei, Wu, & Shu
China was divided up among these 3 families after the fall of the Han empire in 220 C.E. The era of their influence lasted until about 280 C.E. and is often referred to as the "Three Kingdoms period." The population of China is believed to have dropped dramatically as a result of constant wars during this time.
Constantine
Roman emperor who named the capital of the eastern half of the empire (after himself). He was also the first emperor to convert to Christianity.
Attila
Hun warrior king whose conquests in Europe explain why the Romans referred to him as the "Scourge of God." His attacks on the Roman Empire in the fifth century demonstrated its vulnerability.
St. Augustine
He was an intellectual in the early fifth century who gave up Manichean beliefs when he converted to Christianity. He became the Bishop of Hippo in what is today the modern country of Algeria. His writings reconciled Plato's writing with Christian beliefs and became a major influence on medieval European theology.