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25 terms

Apologia Biology Module 5 Version 1

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Organic molecule
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous
Biosynthesis
The process by which living organisms produce molecules
Isomers
Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula
Monosaccharides
Simple carbohydrates that contain three to ten carbon atoms
Disaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
Dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by ejecting water
Hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
Hydrophobic
Lacking any affinity to water
Saturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids which have no double bonds between carbon atoms
Unsaturated fat
A lipid made for fatty acids that have at least one double band between carbon atoms
Peptide bonds
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein
Hydrogen bond
A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Model
An explanation or representation of something that can't be seen
Element
All atoms that contain the same number of protons
Molecules
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together
Physical change
A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance
Chemical change
A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance
Phase
One of three forms-solid, liquid, or gas-which every substance is capable of attaining
Diffusion
The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Concentration
A measurement of how much substance exists within a certain volume
Semipermeable membrane
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not let other molecules pass through
Osmosis
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration
Catalyst
A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but does not get used up in the process