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different forms of a gene


person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait


both alleles for a gene are fully expressed in the heterozygous condition (such as strips or patches of two colors)


fusion of sperm and egg derived from two different individuals

dihybrid cross

cross applied to two characteristics with four alleles

dominant allele

trait that is expressed in a heterozygous genotype

F1 generation

offspring of the P generation; first filial generation

F2 generation

offspring of the F1 generation; second filial generation


branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms


organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations


having two different alleles for a trait; hybrid


having two identical alleles for a trait; pure or true-breeding


offspring of crosses between parents with different traits


continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics

incomplete dominance

creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other

monohybrid cross

cross applied to a single characteristic with two alleles

P generation

parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross


family tree representing the occurrence or heritable traits in parents and offspring across generations


physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.

Punnett square

chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

recessive allele

trait that is hidden in a heterozygous genotype


fusion of sperm and egg produced by the same individual organism

sex-linked gene

gene located on the X or Y chromosome


real life cross between an organism whose genotype for a dominant trait is unknown and an organism that is homozygous recessive for that trait

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