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Norms (Social)

Rules that regulate social life


Social position governed by a set of social norms


Shared rules that govern the behavior of a community/society

Milgram Study

A study that measured the obedience of volunteers in administering shock therapy

Stanford Prison Study

A study in which college students were assigned the roles of prison guards and analyzed


People increase commitment to justify previous actions

Social Cognition

Social psychology that studies influences on thought

Attribution Theory

A theory that states that people attribute behavior to their situation or disposition

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency of people to overestimate the influence of a person's personality as opposed to the influence of the situation

Cognitive Dissonance

Occurs when a person has two conflicting viewpoints. The person might change one of said viewpoints because of this.

Familiarity Effect

People tend to show positive attitudes toward familiar things or people

Validity Effect

If something is repeated enough times, people will start to believe it.


the tendency of groups to think alike

Diffusion of responsibility

When responsibility is spread among many people there is a reduced sense of personal responsibility


Loss of individuality in groups


When a person takes selfless or dangerous action on another person's behalf

Social Identity

One's own self-concept based on identification with a nation, religious group, etc.

Ethnic Identity

One's own self-concept based on identification with an ethnic group


When members of a minority group identify themselves with mainstream culture


The belief that one's own culture, nation, or ethnicity is superior to any other


When all group members are believed or conveyed to share the same common traits


Consists of a negative stereotype and a hatred of a specific group


the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment.

Empirical Evidence

evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, and measurement.


greek for "study of the mind", Franz Joseph Gall argued (incorrectly) that different brain areas accounted for specific character and personality traits (thieves had bumps behind ears)

William Wundt

promoted trained introspection, attributed to first psychological laboratory

Trained Introspection

volunteers were taught how to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions.


emphasizes the function or purpose of behavior instead of analysis/description. Lead by William James.


distress is due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had originated in early childhood

Biological perspective

emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with feelings and thoughts.

Evolutionary Psychology

focuses on how evolution shaped how we act

Learning perspective

how the environment and experience affect a person's actions


environmental rewards/punishments that affect behavior

Social-Cognitive learning

behaviorism combined with thoughts/values/intent

Cognitive perspective

emphasizes mental processes in perception, behavior, etc.

Sociocultural Perspective

emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior

Psychodynamic perspective

emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual (inner conflict)

Basic Psychology

psychology that seeks knowledge for its own sake

Applied Psychology

psychology that deals with issues that have direct practical significance

Counseling psychologist

type of psychologist that helps people deal with problems

School Psychologist

type of psychologist that helps students with emotional difficulties and to succeed academically

Clinical Psychologist

type of psychologist that diagnoses, treats, and studies mental/emotional problems


A major scholarly project


does any kind of psychotherapy (not a legally regulated title)


practices psychoanalysis


MD who has done a residency in psychiatry for three years

Critical Thinking

the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of reason


statement that attempts to describe or explain a behavior

Operational Definitions

specify how phenomena are to be observed/measured

principle of falsifiability

a scientific theory must be able to be proved false

confirmation bias

bias in which a person only pays attention to things that support his argument while ignoring contrary evidence


organized system of assumptions and principles that explain a set of phenomena

representitive sample

group of individuals from a population that represent that population in important characteristics

descriptive methods

methods that yield descriptions of behavior (not necessarily causal)

case study

detailed description of an individual being observed

observational study

observes behavior, does not interfere

naturalistic observation

study in their natural environments

laboratory observation

observed in a laboratory (duh)

psychological tests

used to measure and evaluate personality traits, interests, values, etc.


to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test


standard of performance (what's normal)


consistency of test scores from one time and place to another


the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure


questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences/opinions

volunteer bias

opinions of people who are willing to volunteer might differ from those who decline

correlational study

descriptive study that looks for consistent relationship between 2 phenomena


measure of how strongly 2 variables are related to each other


what is manipulated in a scientific study

positive correlation

the more something happens, the more something else happens

negative correlation

the more something happens, the less something else happens (or vice versa)

coefficient of correlation

values from -1.00 to 1.00

illusory correlations

when two things seem correlated but actually are not


researcher manipulates a variable to discover its affect on something

informed consent

human subjects must participate voluntarily and know enough to make an informed decision on whether to volunteer

independent variable

variable manipulated by the experimenter

dependent variable

affected by manipulations of independent variable

control group

group with different manipulation of same variable

random assignment

each individual has same probability of being assigned to a given group


fake treatment for the control group

single-blind study

subjects do not know whether they are in the experimental or control group

experimenter effects

unexpected changes in subjects' behavior due to cues that experimenter gives accidentally

double-blind study

single-blind, but also the person interacting with people does not know

field research

descriptive or experimental research conducted in a natural setting

descriptive statistics

type of statistics that organizes and summarizes research data

arithmetic mean

shows central behavior in statistics

standard deviation

average difference between scores and their mean (variance)

inferential statistics

type of statistics that determines how statistically meaningful a study's results are

significance tests

determine how likely the results of a study occurred by chance

cross-sectional study

study in which individuals of different ages are compared at a given time

longitudinal study

study in which individuals are followed and periodically reassessed over time

effect size

measures the strength/power of a variable


procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies (measures variance)

Common instigating causes of war

Injustice, Threats to security and interests, and Conflict (Perceived incompatibility between goals, values, or beliefs)

Maladaptive competition

urban 10 year olds were not able to adapt to conflict while rural 10 year olds were

Alternatives to military action

Economic sanctions, Positive incentives & friendly initiatives, Negotiation, Third party involvement, Nonviolent resistance (MLKJ)


someone comes in and helps 2 conflicting parties communicate but the
parties still make the final decision


someone outside helps 2 conflicting parties communicate but ultimately makes the decision

Milataristic attitude

(1) Favoring military actions vs. cooperative actions to deal with international conflict and
(2) believing that national security depends more on military strength than on cooperation with other nations

psychological problems with nuclear deterrence

Human error could be catastrophic, People sometimes act without concern about expected punishment, Competitive thinking has resulted in dangerous levels of nuclear weapons

physical traits desirable by men

large eyes, large gap between eyes and eyebrows

physical traits desirable by women

slightly sunken eyes, heavier eyebrows, broad chin, thin lips, smaller distance between top of lip and brow

loneliest group

18-25 year-old males

Dura Mater

outermost layer of membrane surrounding the brain (most durable)

Arachnoid Mater

Middle layer of membrane surrounding the brain

Pia mater

innermost layer of membrane surrounding the brain

Cerebral Cortex

outermost layer of the brain itself

Frontal Lobe

lobe of the brain that deals with analysis and emotional control (motor strip is in the rear of this)

parietal lobe

lobe of the brain that corresponds to senses and memory

occipital lobe

lobe of the brain that corresponds to senses and memory

temporal lobe

lobe of the brain that deals with auditory information


connects different parts of the brain

Corpus callosum

connects left and right hemispheres of the brain

Cerebrospinal Fluid

1/2 cup of this is in the ventricles and provides cushion for your brain

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