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113 terms

PSY 202 Midterm 1

STUDY
PLAY
Norms (Social)
Rules that regulate social life
Role
Social position governed by a set of social norms
Culture
Shared rules that govern the behavior of a community/society
Milgram Study
A study that measured the obedience of volunteers in administering shock therapy
Stanford Prison Study
A study in which college students were assigned the roles of prison guards and analyzed
Entrapment
People increase commitment to justify previous actions
Social Cognition
Social psychology that studies influences on thought
Attribution Theory
A theory that states that people attribute behavior to their situation or disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency of people to overestimate the influence of a person's personality as opposed to the influence of the situation
Cognitive Dissonance
Occurs when a person has two conflicting viewpoints. The person might change one of said viewpoints because of this.
Familiarity Effect
People tend to show positive attitudes toward familiar things or people
Validity Effect
If something is repeated enough times, people will start to believe it.
Groupthink
the tendency of groups to think alike
Diffusion of responsibility
When responsibility is spread among many people there is a reduced sense of personal responsibility
Deindividuation
Loss of individuality in groups
Altruism
When a person takes selfless or dangerous action on another person's behalf
Social Identity
One's own self-concept based on identification with a nation, religious group, etc.
Ethnic Identity
One's own self-concept based on identification with an ethnic group
Acculturation
When members of a minority group identify themselves with mainstream culture
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one's own culture, nation, or ethnicity is superior to any other
Stereotype
When all group members are believed or conveyed to share the same common traits
Prejudice
Consists of a negative stereotype and a hatred of a specific group
Psychology
the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment.
Empirical Evidence
evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, and measurement.
Phrenology
greek for "study of the mind", Franz Joseph Gall argued (incorrectly) that different brain areas accounted for specific character and personality traits (thieves had bumps behind ears)
William Wundt
promoted trained introspection, attributed to first psychological laboratory
Trained Introspection
volunteers were taught how to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions.
Functionalism
emphasizes the function or purpose of behavior instead of analysis/description. Lead by William James.
Psychoanalysis
distress is due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had originated in early childhood
Biological perspective
emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with feelings and thoughts.
Evolutionary Psychology
focuses on how evolution shaped how we act
Learning perspective
how the environment and experience affect a person's actions
Behaviorism
environmental rewards/punishments that affect behavior
Social-Cognitive learning
behaviorism combined with thoughts/values/intent
Cognitive perspective
emphasizes mental processes in perception, behavior, etc.
Sociocultural Perspective
emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior
Psychodynamic perspective
emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual (inner conflict)
Basic Psychology
psychology that seeks knowledge for its own sake
Applied Psychology
psychology that deals with issues that have direct practical significance
Counseling psychologist
type of psychologist that helps people deal with problems
School Psychologist
type of psychologist that helps students with emotional difficulties and to succeed academically
Clinical Psychologist
type of psychologist that diagnoses, treats, and studies mental/emotional problems
Dissertation
A major scholarly project
Psychotherapist
does any kind of psychotherapy (not a legally regulated title)
psychoanalyst
practices psychoanalysis
Psychiatrist
MD who has done a residency in psychiatry for three years
Critical Thinking
the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of reason
Hypothesis
statement that attempts to describe or explain a behavior
Operational Definitions
specify how phenomena are to be observed/measured
principle of falsifiability
a scientific theory must be able to be proved false
confirmation bias
bias in which a person only pays attention to things that support his argument while ignoring contrary evidence
theory
organized system of assumptions and principles that explain a set of phenomena
representitive sample
group of individuals from a population that represent that population in important characteristics
descriptive methods
methods that yield descriptions of behavior (not necessarily causal)
case study
detailed description of an individual being observed
observational study
observes behavior, does not interfere
naturalistic observation
study in their natural environments
laboratory observation
observed in a laboratory (duh)
psychological tests
used to measure and evaluate personality traits, interests, values, etc.
standardize
to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
norms
standard of performance (what's normal)
reliability
consistency of test scores from one time and place to another
validity
the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
surveys
questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences/opinions
volunteer bias
opinions of people who are willing to volunteer might differ from those who decline
correlational study
descriptive study that looks for consistent relationship between 2 phenomena
correlation
measure of how strongly 2 variables are related to each other
variables
what is manipulated in a scientific study
positive correlation
the more something happens, the more something else happens
negative correlation
the more something happens, the less something else happens (or vice versa)
coefficient of correlation
values from -1.00 to 1.00
illusory correlations
when two things seem correlated but actually are not
experiment
researcher manipulates a variable to discover its affect on something
informed consent
human subjects must participate voluntarily and know enough to make an informed decision on whether to volunteer
independent variable
variable manipulated by the experimenter
dependent variable
affected by manipulations of independent variable
control group
group with different manipulation of same variable
random assignment
each individual has same probability of being assigned to a given group
placebo
fake treatment for the control group
single-blind study
subjects do not know whether they are in the experimental or control group
experimenter effects
unexpected changes in subjects' behavior due to cues that experimenter gives accidentally
double-blind study
single-blind, but also the person interacting with people does not know
field research
descriptive or experimental research conducted in a natural setting
descriptive statistics
type of statistics that organizes and summarizes research data
arithmetic mean
shows central behavior in statistics
standard deviation
average difference between scores and their mean (variance)
inferential statistics
type of statistics that determines how statistically meaningful a study's results are
significance tests
determine how likely the results of a study occurred by chance
cross-sectional study
study in which individuals of different ages are compared at a given time
longitudinal study
study in which individuals are followed and periodically reassessed over time
effect size
measures the strength/power of a variable
meta-analysis
procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies (measures variance)
Common instigating causes of war
Injustice, Threats to security and interests, and Conflict (Perceived incompatibility between goals, values, or beliefs)
Maladaptive competition
urban 10 year olds were not able to adapt to conflict while rural 10 year olds were
Alternatives to military action
Economic sanctions, Positive incentives & friendly initiatives, Negotiation, Third party involvement, Nonviolent resistance (MLKJ)
Mediation
someone comes in and helps 2 conflicting parties communicate but the
parties still make the final decision
Arbitration
someone outside helps 2 conflicting parties communicate but ultimately makes the decision
Milataristic attitude
(1) Favoring military actions vs. cooperative actions to deal with international conflict and
(2) believing that national security depends more on military strength than on cooperation with other nations
psychological problems with nuclear deterrence
Human error could be catastrophic, People sometimes act without concern about expected punishment, Competitive thinking has resulted in dangerous levels of nuclear weapons
physical traits desirable by men
large eyes, large gap between eyes and eyebrows
physical traits desirable by women
slightly sunken eyes, heavier eyebrows, broad chin, thin lips, smaller distance between top of lip and brow
loneliest group
18-25 year-old males
Dura Mater
outermost layer of membrane surrounding the brain (most durable)
Arachnoid Mater
Middle layer of membrane surrounding the brain
Pia mater
innermost layer of membrane surrounding the brain
Cerebral Cortex
outermost layer of the brain itself
Frontal Lobe
lobe of the brain that deals with analysis and emotional control (motor strip is in the rear of this)
parietal lobe
lobe of the brain that corresponds to senses and memory
occipital lobe
lobe of the brain that corresponds to senses and memory
temporal lobe
lobe of the brain that deals with auditory information
Commissure
connects different parts of the brain
Corpus callosum
connects left and right hemispheres of the brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid
1/2 cup of this is in the ventricles and provides cushion for your brain