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99 terms

Orchestra 2011-2012 Sem. 2 Final

STUDY
PLAY
pp
pianissimo; very soft
p
piano; soft
mp
mezzo piano; medium soft
mf
mezzo forte; medium loud
f
forte; loud
ff
fortissimo; very loud
crescendo, cres.
get louder
diminuendo, dim.
get softer
a tempo
return to original tempo
accelerando
get faster
adagio
slow
allargando
slowing down and becoming broader
allegro
cheerful; fast
allegretto
a tempo in between allegro and andante; "a little lively"
andante
walking tempo; moderately
assai
much; as in "allegro assai" - quite fast
brio
vigor, spirit; usually in "con brio"
con
with
con moto
with motion
grave
very slow and solemn
largo
broad, very slow
lento
slow
l'istesso tempo
at the same rate of speed
maestosso
majestic, dignified; with lofty breadth
meno
less; not so
molto
very; much
moderato
moderate tempo
mosso
moved; moving; movement
non
no; not
presto
very fast
poco
little
poco a poco
little by little
rallentando, rall.
growing slower and slower
ritardando, rit.
growing slower and slower
stringendo
gradually faster; pressing forward
stringendo e cresc.
gradually faster and louder
vivace
very lively
vivo
lively
accent
stress placed on certain notes, indicated by a symbol >
arco
with the bow
col legno
with the wood
divisi; div.
divided
glissando
sliding from one pitch to the other
legato
smooth, connected
marcato
marked, accented; with each note emphasized
martele
"hammered" bowing, with a forceful, sudeen release
pizzicato
played by plucking the strings with the fingers
sordino
mute
spiccato
bouncing lightly off the string
staccato
short, detached strokes
tremolo
short rapidly repeated strokes on one note
unison, unis.
play in unison again
Antonio Vivaldi
1678-1741
Concerto in D major
Concerto Grosso in D minor - 1711
The Four Seasons - 1723
Each season = sonnet.
Baroque
Johann S. Bach
1685-1750
"Break Forth, O Beauteous Heavenly Light" -1734, part of Christmas Oratorio
Baroque
George F. Handel
1685-1759
"Messiah" - 24 days - 1741
"Water Music" - Air: F major - 1717 (King George I, River Thames)

Baroque
Ludwig van Beethoven
1770-1827
Started losing hearing in 1788
"Allegretto" - Symphony No. 7 in A major - 1813
Classical
Wolfgang A. Mozart
1756-1791
Symphony No. 40 in G minor - 1788
Classical
Felix Mendelssohn
1809-1847
"Italian Symphony" - "An Italian Elegy" - 1833
Romantic
Bedrich Smetana
1824-1884
"The Moldau" - 1874-1879
Romantic
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
1844-1908
Procession of the Nobles - 1892
Romantic
capo
the beginning; the top; "da capo" from the beginning
coda
a tail; ex. a closing section of a movement
cut time
also known as alla breve; a meter w/ 2 beats per measure w/ the half note getting the beat
D.C. al Fine
go back to the beginning, play until the Fine
D.S. al Coda
go back to the sign, play until coda sign, proceed to coda
D.S. al Fine
go back to the sign, play until Fine
Dolce
sweet, gentle
Dolcissimo
very sweet
Enharmonic
2 notes same pitch but "spelled" diff; i.e. D# and E flat
Fine
the end; often in phrases like "al fine" (to the end)
Leggero, Leggiero
lightly, delicately
Pesante
heavy, weighty
Piu
more; for ex. "piu f" - more forte
segno
sign; "dal segno" - from the sign
sempre
always; in the same manner throughout
simile, sim.
in a similar way; continue in the same manner
solo
alone; one player/singer
soli
featuring more than one player or singer; multiple soloists; can feature entire section
sostenuto
sustained, lengthened
subito
suddenly
subito p
suddenly soft
symphony
an orchestral composition with from 3-5 mvts.; or group of musicians themselves
tenuto, ten.
"held"' a tone so marked is to be held for entire note value
tranquillo
play in a relaxed manner; tranquilly, calmly
tutti
all together; used after solo passage to indicate when everyone joins in again
Stars
Sharps and flats (see key signature)
sTars
Time signature
stArs
Accidentals
staRs
Rhythm
starS
Signs and symbols (tempo, repeats, expression, bowing, dynamic, etc.)
Baroque
1600-1750
Bach, Handel, Vivaldi
Corelli, Telemann
Classical
1750-1830
Mozart, Beethoven
Hadyn
Romantic
1815-1910
Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Berlioz, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Rachmaninoff, Smetana
Nationalism
1815-1910 (parallel to Romantic)
Dvorak
Impressionism
late 19th-20th century
Ravel, Debussy
Modern
1910-present
Menotti
Holst, Prokofieff, Shostakovich, Stravinsky
Major Key Signatures
Order of sharps: FCGDAEB
Minor Key Signatures
Order of flats: BEADGCF
Modes
7 modes
Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian
D Dorian - "A Modal Festival