59 terms

world geography- unit 2: weather and climate

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rotation
The Earth rotates from the west towards east. As viewed from North Star or polestar Polaris, the Earth turns counter-clockwise. The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
revolution
The period of revolution of the Earth around the Sun is equal to one year. The Earth makes one revolution on its axis in about 24 hours.
summer solstice
the solstice that marks the onset of summer, at the time of the longest day, about June 21 in the northern hemisphere and December 22 in the southern hemisphere.
winter solstice
the solstice that marks the onset of winter, at the time of the shortest day, about December 22 in the northern hemisphere and June 21 in the southern hemisphere.
vernal equinox
the equinox in spring, on about March 20 in the northern hemisphere and September 22 in the southern hemisphere
autumanl equinox
the equinox in autumn, on about September 22 in the northern hemisphere and March 20 in the southern hemispher
tropic of cancer
the parallel of latitude 23°26ʹ north tropic of Cancer or south tropic of Capricorn of the equator.
tropic of capricorn
the parallel of latitude 23°26ʹ north tropic of Cancer or south tropic of Capricorn of the equator.
arctic circle
The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. As of 13 September 2015, it runs 66°33′45.9″ north of the Equator.
antarctic circle
The Antarctic Circle is the northernmost latitude in the Southern Hemisphere at which the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for 24 hours.
equator
an imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°.
climate
the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
LAPDOG
Lattitude
Altitude
Prevailing winds
Distance from oceans
Ocean currents
Great mountain barriers
latitude
the angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator, or of a celestial object north or south of the celestial equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.
altitude
the height of an object or point in relation to sea level or ground level.
Prevailing winds
a wind from the direction that is predominant at a particular place or season.
ocean currents
An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, and temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
pressure system
high pressure zone and low pressure zone
water vapor
Medical Definition of WATER VAPOR. : water in a vaporous form especially when below boiling temperature and diffused (as in the atmosphere)
convection
the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.
convectional precipitation
Convectional rainfall. When the land warms up, it heats the air above it. This causes the air to expand and rise. As the air rises it cools and condenses. If this process continues then rain will fall.
frontal precipitation
Water vapour in the air condenses into clouds and precipitation. This type of precipitation is common in the Prairies and Ontario. Cyclonic Precipitation. Cyclonic or Frontal precipitation results when the leading edge of a warm, moist air mass (warm front) meets a cool and dry air mass (cold front).
coriolis affect
an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force (the Coriolis force ) acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation. On the earth, the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern and is important in the formation of cyclonic weather systems.
climate zones
tropical wet
tropical wet & dry
desert
semiarid
mediterrainian
marine west coast
humid subtropical
humid continental
subarctic
tundra
ice cap
highlands
tropical wet
Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate (Aw): These climates generally have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and also less than (100 − [total annual precipitation {mm}/25]).
tropical wet and dry
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" andAs".
semiarid
The definition of semiarid is a climate or place that is partially arid, or semi-dry and has less than 20 inches of rain each year. An example of semiarid climates is the hot, semiarid climate of the Outback in Australia.
desert
A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid.
marine west coast
An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.
humid subtropical
A humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa or Cwa) is a zone of subtropical climate characterised by hot, usually humid summers and mild to cool winters. Under the Köppen climate definition, this category of climate type covers a broad range of attributes, especially in terms of winter temperatures.
humid continental
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters.
subarctic
of or relating to the region immediately south of the Arctic Circle.
tundra
a vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.
ice caps
a covering of ice over a large area, especially on the polar region of a planet.
highlands
an area of high or mountainous land
climographs
A climograph is a graphical representation of basic climatic parameters, that is monthly average temperature and precipitation, at a certain location. It is used for a quick-view of the climate of a location
el niño
an irregularly occurring and complex series of climatic changes affecting the equatorial Pacific region and beyond every few years, characterized by the appearance of unusually warm, nutrient-poor water off northern Peru and Ecuador, typically in late December.
la niña
a cooling of the water in the equatorial Pacific that occurs at irregular intervals and is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns complementary to those of El Niño, but less extensive and damaging in their eff
floods
an overflowing of a large amount of water beyond its normal confines, especially over what is normally dry land.
flood plain
an area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river sediments and subject to flooding.
hurricane
a storm with a violent wind, in particular a tropical cyclone in the Caribbean.
tornados
a mobile, destructive vortex of violently rotating winds having the appearance of a funnel-shaped cloud and advancing beneath a large storm system.
tornado alley
an area of the Great Plains centered on eastern Kansas and Oklahoma and including parts of the surrounding states, where tornadoes are frequent.
earthquake
a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action.
siesmograph
an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
epicenter
the point on the earth's surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake.
tsunami
a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance.
volcano
a mountain or hill, typically conical, having a crater or vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapor, and gas are being or have been erupted from the earth's crust.
green house effect
the trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface.
ecosystem
a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
biome
a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g., forest or tundra.
forestlands
decidious
coniferous
rainforest
deciduous
The deciduous forest has four distinct seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In the autumn the leaves change color. During the winter months the trees lose their leaves.
coniferous
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
rainforest
a luxuriant, dense forest rich in biodiversity, found typically in tropical areas with consistently heavy rainfall.
grasslands
savanna
steppe
prairie
veld
pampas
desert
A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid.
tundra
a vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.
permafrost
a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains frozen throughout the year, occurring chiefly in polar regions.