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78 terms

Pre AP Biology Module 3:2

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Nucleotide
Repeating subunit of DNA
Nucleotide
Sugar
Nucleotide
Phosphate group (PO43-)
Nucleotide
Nitrogen base
Nitrogen bases
Adenine
Nitrogen bases
Thymine
Nitrogen bases
Cytosine
Nitrogen bases
Guanine
Nitrogen bases
Uracil (RNA Only)
A - T
2 hydrogen bonds in between
C-G
3 hydrogen bonds in between
Watson - Crick
Important scientist that discovered the double helix
Robert Hook
First to see the cell wall of a plant cell (he came up with the name cell)
DNA
Double stranded
DNA
Sugar is deoxyribose
DNA
A - T
DNA
More advanced than RNA (probably "newer")
DNA
Controls the making of proteins
DNA
Is considered the "thinking part" of the cell
RNA
Single stranded
RNA
Sugar is ribose
RNA
A - U
RNA
Plays a role in protein synthesis
RNA
several types (tRNA, rRNA, mRNA)
RNA
can act as its own enzyme - ribosyme
DNA Replication
necessary for mitosis
Helicase
unzips the DNA ladder (breaks hydrogen bonds
Helicase
its an enzyme
Transcription
converting the langauage of DNA into the language of RNA
Transcription
occurs in the nucleus of Eukaroytic cells
Transcription
involvels mRNA
Translation
making sense of the instructions in order to make the correct protein
Translation
occurs in the cytoplasm of Eukaryotic cells
Translation
involves tRNA
13. mRNA
messenger RNA
13. mRNA
converts DNA into RNA
tRNA
transfer RNA
tRNA
brings the amino acids to the mRNA and places them in the correct sequence
rRNA
ribosomal RNA
rRNA
most abundant type of RNA
rRNA
located at the ribosme
rRNA
helps make the protein
prokaryotic cells
transcription and translation happen at the same time and at the same place
eukaryotice cells
translation out in the cytoplasm
eukaryotice cells
transcription inside nucleus
codon
nitrogen bases (in sets of 3) that are on the mRNA
anticodon
nitrogen bases (in sets of 3) that are on the tRNA
Locations of DNA
inside the nucleus
Locations of DNA
inside the mitochondria
Locations of DNA
inside chloroplast
Locations of RNA
inside the nucleus (mRNA)
Locations of RNA
inside the cyctoplasm (tRNA)
Locations of RNA
on the ribosome (rRNA)
mutation
change in DNA causing a change in proteins
point mutation
one base pair is incorrectly matched
point mutation
usually does not change the phenotype of the protein
point mutation
exception is sickle cell anemia
frameshift mutation
caused by insertion or deletion
frameshift mutation
causes all codons to shift down or up making major changes in phenotype of protein
neutral mutations
sometimes a change in DNA does not even affect the phenotype
introns
segments of mRNA that stay inside the nucleus and never even leave
exons
segments of mRNA that EXIT the nucleus and begin to be worked on by the tRNA
mRNA
transcription
tRNA
translation
rRNA
actually finishes the assembling of the proteins
RNAi
somehow deals with turning off genes
Blastula
hollow ball of cells
Gastrula
infolding or "pushing in"
Protostome
infolding becomes mouth
Deuterstome
infolding become anus and mouth on opposite side
Ectoderm
gives rise to skin and primitive nerve tissue
Endoderm
gives rise to digestive tract
Mesoderm
gives rise to most of the complex organs of the body
Embyrology
study of shape of orgnanisms (before they are born) to determine how closely related that they might be
Aceolomate
no cavity
Pseduoceolomate
mesoderm only partly surounds the cavity
Ceolomate
mesoderm completely surrounds the cavity
Histones
proteins that DNA wraps around