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34 terms

Adulthood: Chapters 20-22

Based on Kathleen Berger's The Developing Person Through the Lifespan
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Presbycusis
The loss of hearing associated with senescence. Often does not become apparent until after age 60.
Loss of brain cells
Drug abuse leads to Korsakoff's syndrome or "wet brain", excessive stress, poor circulation, viruses. Neurons fire more slowly, brain size is reduced with less grey matter. Brain slows down. Sleep becomes more important
Assisted reproductive technology
ART- the collective name for the various methods of medical intervention that can help infertile couples have children
In vitro fertilization
IVF- ova are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in a lab. After fertilized cells divide several times, inserted into uterus.
Menopause
Dated one year after last period. Around age 50.
Hormone replacement theory
HRT- treatment to compensate for hormone reduction at menopause or following removal of ovaries. Usually involves estrogen and progesterone, minimizes menopausal symptoms and diminishes risk of osteoporosis in late adulthood.
Andropause
Gradual drop in testosterone levels in older men that results in reduced sexual desire, erections, muscle mass.
Mortality
Death. Normally refers to the number of death each year per 1000 members of given population
Morbidity
Disease. Rate of diseases of all kinds in a given population- physical and emotional, acute (sudden), and chronic (on-going)
Quality-adjusted life years
QALYs- a way of comparing mere survival without vitality to survival with good health. Indicate how many years of full vitality are lost to a particular physical disease or disability. They are expressed in terms of life expectancy and adjusted for quality of life.
Disability-adjusted life years
DALYs. Same approach, opposite direction. Reduction in QALYs means increase in DALYs. Shoot for high QALY-DALY ratio.
General intelligence
g- idea that intelligence is one basic trait, underlying all cognitive abilities. According to this concept, people have varying levels of this general ability
Fluid intelligence
types of basic intelligence that make learnings of all sorts quick and thorough. Short-term memory, abstract thought, and speed of thinking are all part of fluid intelligence.
Crystallized intelligence
Those types of intellectual ability that reflect accumulated learning. Vocabulary and general information. Some developmental psychologists think crystallized increases with age while fluid declines.
Analytic intelligence
Sternberg. Involves mental processes such as abstract planning, strategy selection, focused attention, and information processing, as well as verbal and logical skills.
Creative intelligence
Sternberg. Involves capacity to be intellectually flexible and innovative.
Practical intelligence
Sternberg. Used in everyday problem solving.
Eight intelligences
Gardner. Linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic, social-understanding, and self-understanding.
Selective expert
Someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful
Intuition
Novices rely on formal procedures and rules while experts rely on past experiences and immediate contexts
Expert cognition
Intuitive, automatic, flexible, strategic. Takes time to develop. More likely at older ages although not guaranteed.
Social clock
Idea that the stages of life and the behaviors "appropriate" to them, are set by social standards rather than by biological maturation. "Middle age" begins when the culture believes that it does, rather than at a particular age in all cultures.
Big five
personality traits- openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism. Remain fairly stable through adulthood.
Ecological niche
Particular lifestyle and social context that adults settle into because that setting is compatible with the individual personality needs and interests.
Gender convergence
Men and women become more similar as they move through middle age
Social convoy
Collectively, the family members, friends, acquaintances, and strangers who move through life with an individual
Allostatic load
The total, combined burden of stress and disease that an individual must cope with
Linked lives
Notion that family members tend to share all aspects of each other's lives, from triumph to tragedy
Familism
Idea that family members should support each other because family unity is more important than individual freedom and success
Fictive kin
A term used to describe someone who becomes accepted as part of a family to which he or she has no blood relation
Kinkeeper
The person who takes primary responsibility for celebrating family achievements, gathering the family together, and keeping in touch with family members who do not live nearby
Sandwich generation
Term for generation of middle-age people who are supposedly squeezed by the needs of the younger and older generations. Some feel pressured by these obligations but most are not burdened by them because they enjoy fulfilling them or because they choose to take on only some of them or none
Extrinsic rewards of work
Tangible rewards, usually in the form of compensation, that one receives for a job (salary, benefits, pension)
Intrinsic rewards of work
Intangible benefits one receives from a job (satisfaction, self-esteem, pride) that come from within oneself