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a small, hot, dirty workhouse


a business in which ownership is shared


complete control of a product or service

Andrew Carnegie

a steel tycoon who used vertical integration to increase profits

Thomas Edison

the inventor who wanted to develop affordable lighting for homes

Samuel Gompers

labor leader who began the American Federation of Labor

mass production

a system for turning out large numbers of products quickly and inexpensively

John D. Rockefeller

an oil tycoon who used horizontal integration to decrease costs and increase profits.

Homestead Strike

the response to wage cuts at a Carnegie Steel plant in 1892 in which 10 workers were killed


a person who invests money in a business venture to make a profit

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

first federal agency monitoring business operations, created in 1887 to oversee interstate railroad operations.


businesses making the same product agree to limit production.

protective tariffs

taxes on imported goods that encouraged people to buy American goods.

Haymarket Square Riot

1886 labor-related protest in Chicago which ended in deadly violence causing many Americans to become wary of unions and turn away from radicalism.

vertical integration

system in which one company controls the businesses that make up all phases of a products development

horizontal integration

system which consolidates many firms involved in the same business into one giant company

Pullman Strike

a violent 1894 strike of railway workers outside Chicago which spread nationally and halted railroad traffic and mail delivery.

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

union that limited membership to skilled craftspeople and focused on economic reforms

bessemer process

a technological breakthrough that allowed steel to be produced more efficiently.


"hands off", the absence of government control over private business or the economy.

Knights of Labor

the first founded labor union, it was open to workers from any trade

Sherman Antitrust Act

law in 1890 that banned any large corporation that restrained interstate trade or commerce

Robber Barons

a negative term for business leaders that implied they built their fortunes by stealing from the public

Social Darwinism

The idea which held that wealth was a measure of one's inherent value and those who had it were the most "fit".

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