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the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

mental process

private, unobservable mental processes such as sensation, perception, thought, and problem solving


an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings


the school of psychology, founded by John B. Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior

psychoanalytic perspective

the perspective, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior

biological perspective

the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior

cognitive perspective

the point of view that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior

humanistic perspective

the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices

learning perspective

the psychological point of view that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior

clinical psychologist

a psychologist trained to deal with serious mental illness; they do psychological testing, psychotherapy, and conduct research


a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication

school psychologist

a psychologist who helps students with problems that interfere with learning

sports psychologist

a psychologist who helps athletes improve their performance using techniques like relaxation and visualization

Wilhelm Wundt

founder of structuralism; opened first psychology laboratory in 1879


awareness of things inside you and outside you

circadian rhythms

Biological rhythms that change over a 24-hour period


Measures electrical activity in brain (brain waves)

Stage 1 sleep

the lightest stage of sleep

Stage 2 sleep

stage of sleep a little deeper than stage 1

Stages 3 & 4 sleep

deep sleep; difficult to wake person; often disoriented if wake up; talking and walking in sleep happen here

NREM sleep

non-REM sleep; includes sleep stages 1-4

rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep

sleep that features vivid, long-lasting dreams; similar to being awake; irregular breathing, heart rate; difficult to awaken from; body "paralyzed"

sleep debt

lost sleep that must be "paid back"

reasons we sleep

REM sleep is important for memory; restorative; fight infection; deal with stress


a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of REM sleep

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary breathing stoppages during sleep and repeated awakenings


the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep

lucid dream

a dream in which the dreamer is aware that he/she is dreaming

manifest content

according to Sigmund Freud, the part of a dream that is remembered, the "story" of the dream

latent content

according to Sigmund Freud, the hidden meaning of a dream

purpose of a dream according to Freud

to fulfill unacceptable wishes


according to Freud, the part of the mind that is not currently in consciousness, but could be made conscious with a little effort; includes memories and stored knowledge


according to Freud, the part if the mind that contains what a person is currently aware of


according to Freud, the part of the mind holding information that a person is not aware of; contains unacceptable wishes, immoral urges, shameful experiences, etc.

psychological disorder

behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with one's ability to cope with daily life


interfering with the ability to cope in daily life


a general state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a vague or imagined danger

specific phobia (simple phobia)

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation


fear of being in places in which escape may be difficult or impossible

posttraumatic stress disorder

extreme anxiety after event that almost anyone would find stressful


long-lasting emotion that affects how one perceives the world


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition; used to diagnose mental disorders

obsessive-compulsive disorder

disorder that features either obsessions, compulsions, or both

major depressive disorder

a mood disorder in which a person, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities


false belief, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders


a group of disorders marked by lack of reality testing, and disturbances in thought, perception, language, behavior, and emotions

bipolar disorder

a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression


false sensory perceptions


a way of gaining knowledge about the world through systematic observation

effects of sleep deprivation

irritability, memory and learning problems, drowsiness

teenage sleep requirements

between 8 and 10 hours

REM sleep changes throughout the lifespan

as people age, REM sleep becomes a smaller percentage of overall sleep

persistent depressive disorder

low-level depression lasting at least two years

manic episode

experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self-esteem, increased talkativeness, and irresponsible behavior

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