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54 terms

HB Final-2nd Semester

STUDY
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psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
mental process
private, unobservable mental processes such as sensation, perception, thought, and problem solving
introspection
an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings
behaviorism
the school of psychology, founded by John B. Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
psychoanalytic perspective
the perspective, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior
biological perspective
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior
cognitive perspective
the point of view that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior
humanistic perspective
the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices
learning perspective
the psychological point of view that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
clinical psychologist
a psychologist trained to deal with serious mental illness; they do psychological testing, psychotherapy, and conduct research
psychiatrist
a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; can prescribe medication
school psychologist
a psychologist who helps students with problems that interfere with learning
sports psychologist
a psychologist who helps athletes improve their performance using techniques like relaxation and visualization
Wilhelm Wundt
founder of structuralism; opened first psychology laboratory in 1879
consciousness
awareness of things inside you and outside you
circadian rhythms
Biological rhythms that change over a 24-hour period
EEG
Measures electrical activity in brain (brain waves)
Stage 1 sleep
the lightest stage of sleep
Stage 2 sleep
stage of sleep a little deeper than stage 1
Stages 3 & 4 sleep
deep sleep; difficult to wake person; often disoriented if wake up; talking and walking in sleep happen here
NREM sleep
non-REM sleep; includes sleep stages 1-4
rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep
sleep that features vivid, long-lasting dreams; similar to being awake; irregular breathing, heart rate; difficult to awaken from; body "paralyzed"
sleep debt
lost sleep that must be "paid back"
reasons we sleep
REM sleep is important for memory; restorative; fight infection; deal with stress
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of REM sleep
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary breathing stoppages during sleep and repeated awakenings
insomnia
the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep
lucid dream
a dream in which the dreamer is aware that he/she is dreaming
manifest content
according to Sigmund Freud, the part of a dream that is remembered, the "story" of the dream
latent content
according to Sigmund Freud, the hidden meaning of a dream
purpose of a dream according to Freud
to fulfill unacceptable wishes
preconscious
according to Freud, the part of the mind that is not currently in consciousness, but could be made conscious with a little effort; includes memories and stored knowledge
conscious
according to Freud, the part if the mind that contains what a person is currently aware of
unconscious
according to Freud, the part of the mind holding information that a person is not aware of; contains unacceptable wishes, immoral urges, shameful experiences, etc.
psychological disorder
behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with one's ability to cope with daily life
maladaptive
interfering with the ability to cope in daily life
anxiety
a general state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a vague or imagined danger
specific phobia (simple phobia)
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
agoraphobia
fear of being in places in which escape may be difficult or impossible
posttraumatic stress disorder
extreme anxiety after event that almost anyone would find stressful
mood
long-lasting emotion that affects how one perceives the world
DSM-5
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition; used to diagnose mental disorders
obsessive-compulsive disorder
disorder that features either obsessions, compulsions, or both
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
delusion
false belief, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
schizophrenia
a group of disorders marked by lack of reality testing, and disturbances in thought, perception, language, behavior, and emotions
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
hallucinations
false sensory perceptions
science
a way of gaining knowledge about the world through systematic observation
effects of sleep deprivation
irritability, memory and learning problems, drowsiness
teenage sleep requirements
between 8 and 10 hours
REM sleep changes throughout the lifespan
as people age, REM sleep becomes a smaller percentage of overall sleep
persistent depressive disorder
low-level depression lasting at least two years
manic episode
experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self-esteem, increased talkativeness, and irresponsible behavior