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ITIL 2011 Foundation
Basic concepts of the ITIL Service Lifecycle
Terms in this set (254)
What is ITIL?
Information Technology Infrastructure Library
A set of best practice publications for IT service management
(service management framework)
Why do orgs use ITIL?
Provides a formal standard to have service management capabilities audited and certified. It helps close the gaps in capabilities. ITIL provides the knowledge to achieve standards set out by ISO etc.
Why is ITIL successful?
1) Vendor neutral: applicable to any IT org, not based on a particular technology platform
2) Non prescriptive: mature and tested practices
3) Best practice: represents learning experiences from the best service providers
What components does the ITIL framework have?
1) ITIL Core Publications: Best practice guidance to all types of orgs.
2) ITIL Complimentary Guidance: Guidance specific to industry sectors, org types, operating models and technology architecture
What volumes/phases make up the Service Lifecycle?
1) Service Strategy
2) Service Design
3) Service Transition
4) Service Operation
5) Continual Service Improvement
Explain the "ABC" of ICT orgs.:
Attitude, Behaviour, Culture
Understand what the Information Communication Technology (ICT) org business requires & what attitudes, behaviours and cultures are holding it back
What is a Service?
A way to deliver value to customers by facilitating outcomes that the customer wants, without the ownership of cost and risk.
The functions and processes combined to provide an outcome.
What is an Outcome?
The result of an activity following a process, or delivering a service
How do services facilitate outcomes?
By enhancing the performance of tasks and reducing the effect of constraints
What is Service Management?
A set of capabilities for providing value (to a customer via service)
It's about transforming resources into valuable services
What is an IT Service?
A service provided by IT service provider made up of a combo of IT, people and processes
What are two kinds of IT Services?
1) Customer Facing Services (External customer-facing): Directly supports customer & its service level targets defined in the SLA
2) Supporting Services (Internal customer-facing):
Required by service provider to deliver customer facing services (not used by customer)
What are the three types of services?
1) Core = delivers basic outcomes
2) Enabling = needed in order for core services to be delivered
3) Enhancing = added to core to make it more exiting
What is IT Service Management (ITSM)?
The implementation & management of IT services that meet the needs of the business
What is Value?
The level to which the service meets a customer's expectation
Name the characteristics of value
1) Defined by customer
2) Achievement of objectives
3) Values can change over time
4) Affordable mix of features
What are the two primary elements of value?
1) Utility = Fit for Purpose
The functionality of product or service in customer's perspective i.e cell phone has camera function
2) Warranty = Fit for Use
Promise (in SLA) that product or service will meet agreed requirements i.e. signal coverage in areas promised
What is Business Value?
Services that provide customer with wanted business outcomes
What are the components of value - what defines value?
1) Perception (customer's)
2) Preference (customer's)
3) Business Outcomes
The service provider to provide customer with info to influence their perception of value, and respond to preferences.
What influences the expected service?
2) Past Experiences
The service provider has to "mind the gap" between perceived and expected service.
What are the 4 levels of service provision expectations?
1) Generic level = core part of service
2) Expected level = minimal conditions of service provision
3) Augmented level = Expectations may be augmented by things customer didn't think of
4) Potential level = what needs to be done to attract and hold customers
Who are the Key Stakeholders?
1) Customers (groups of users) = buy goods or services
a) Internal = works for same business as service provider
b) External = works for different bus. from service provider
2) Users = use the service day-to-day
3) Suppliers = third parties supplying goods/service required
What is Service Assets?
Resources and capabilities
What is a Capability?
The ability of an org, person, process, application, service or config item to carry out an activity:
- People (shared with resources)
What is a Resource?
Everything that helps deliver an IT Service, including:
- IT infrastructure
- People (shared with capabilities)
What is an intangible and tangible asset?
Intangible = Capabilities
Tangible = Resources
What are the design constraints for a service?
- Capability constraints
- Resource constraints
- Utility constraints
- And more...
What is a Process?
A set of activities to accomplish an objective. Takes inputs and turn them into outputs.
What characteristics does a process have?
1) Measurability = ability to measure the process
2) Specific Results = delivers a result
3) Customers = result is delivered to a customer
4) Responsiveness to triggers = traceable to a specific trigger
What does process definitions describe?
What is a Role?
Set of responsibilities, activities and authorities granted to a person or a team. A role is defined in a process or function.
What is the Authority/RACI matrix?
It's used to define which role play a role in the process activities:
- Responsibility = execute activity
- Accountability = owner of quality and end result
- Consulted = Seek opinion in a two way communication
- Informed = Kept up to date in a one way communication
What is a benefit of RACI?
Role and activity analysis can identify weaknesses or areas of improvements.
What is a Process Owner's responsibility?
Ensures that a process is fit for purpose (functionality of product or service is there)
Detail the Process Owner's responsibilities:
-Sponsor, design change manage process
-Define process strategy
-Assist in process design
-Process documentation is available
-Define policies and standards about process
-Audit process for compliance
-Review process strategy
-Communicate process information
-Provide process resources
-Process technicians have knowledge
-Review for process improvements
-Address process issues
-Identify improvements for the CSI register
-Prioritize improvements in CSI
What is the Process Manager's responsibility?
Operational management of the process. Often the same person as the process owner.
Detail the Process Manager's responsibilities:
-Coordinate all activities with process owner
-Ensure all activities are carried out
-Appoint people to roles
-Manage resources assigned
-Ensure smooth running w. process owners and managers
-Identify improvement opportunities
-Review and prioritize CSI improvements
What is the Process Practitioner's responsibility?
Carry out one or more process activities
What is the Service Owner's responsibility?
Accountable for a specific service within org:
-Ongoing delivery meet agreed customer requirements
-Understand and translate customer requirements
-Communication with customer for inquiries and issues
-Identify opportunities for service improvements
-Liaising with process owners
-Gather and analyse stats and data
What is a Function?
Is a group of people and their tools & resources used to carry out a process activity (or more)
How can you define roles and responsibilities?
With a matrix listing the process on one axis and the functions on the other and in the actual chart you list the roles
Summarize the Service Lifecycle:
-Provides guidance for an integrated approach to meet standards (such as ISO)
-Service Strategy represents policies & objectives
- Service Design, Transition and Operation represent change and transformation (implement the strategy)
-Continual Service Improvement represents learning and improvements
Volume/Phase 1: Service Strategy - What is it?
Phase of designing, developing and implementing Service Management
What are topics covered in Service Strategy?
-Development of market spaces
-Characteristics of internal and external provider types
- Service Portfolio
-Implementation of strategy
What is the Purpose of Service Strategy?
Define the perspective, position, plans & patterns needed to be able to execute and meet an org's business outcomes
What are Objectives of Service Strategy?
-Define how value is created
-Define how assets underpin value
-Provide delivery and funding model
What is the Scope of Service Strategy?
- Define how to deliver services to meet customer's business outcome
- Define how to manage services
????Need to clarify this in class - p. 98?????
What is the Business Value of Service Strategy?
-Define performance (customer sees contribution to values)
-Alignment of IT services with the business
What are Processes related to Service Strategy?
-Business Relationship Management
What is the purpose of Service Portfolio Management?
Ensure the right mix of services to balance the investment in IT with the ability to meet business outcomes.
What does Service Portfolio represent?
All the resources engaged or being released in various stages of the service lifecycle
What is the content/elements of a Service Portfolio?
- Service Pipeline = all services under development, Growth and Outlook
- Service Catalogue = Active Services, Ready for production, Only part of catalogue published to the customer
- Retired Services = Phased out, Not available anymore
What is a Business Case?
- A decision support and planning tool that provides justification for expenditure.
- Focuses on ROI (return on investment) and VOI (value of investment)
What is the content of a Business Case?
- Intro = presents objectives
- Methods & Assumptions = defines boundaries of case
- Business Impact = Financial & non-financial impact
- Risk and Contingencies = probability of alternate results
- Recommendations = Actions recommended
What processes does Financial Management include
- Budgeting = Predict & control income & expenditure
- Accounting = Account for the way its money is spent
- Charging = process to bill customers
What cycles are associated with budgeting, accounting, charging?
1) Planning cycle = cost and workload forecasting
2) Operational cycle = cost monitored against budget
What is the purpose of Business Relationship Management?
1) Establish & maintain a relationship, customer -> provider
2) Identify customer needs and meet needs even when needs change
What is Business Relationship Management Activities referring to?
- Represent service provider to customers through marketing, selling and delivery activities
-Facilitate customer advocacy through the service lifecycle
What is Patterns of Business Activity (PBA)?
A workload profile of one or more business activities. Represents dynamics of business and interactions with customers, suppliers, partners and stakeholders.
A workload profile is also referred to as?
Pattern of Business Activity (PBA)
Volume/Phase 2: Service Design - What is it?
The phase that turns service strategy into a plan for delivering the business outcomes
What is the Purpose of Service Design?
1) Design IT Services together with governing practices, processes and policies
2) Introduction of services to supported environments
What are Objectives of Service Design?
1) Design services so effectively that minimal improvements will be required
2) Continual improvement in all aspects of design
What is the Scope of Service Design?
Provide guidance for design of services to meet agreed business requirements (current & future):
1) Describe the principles of service design
2) Introduce service design package & select right service model
3) Service design driven by functional requirements, SLAs, benefits and design constraints
What is the Business Value of Service Design?
1) Quality Service
2) Cost-effective Services
What are Processes related to Service Design?
- Design Coordination
- Service Level Management
- Service Catalogue Management
- Availability Management
- Capacity Management
- Information Security Management
- Service Continuity Management
- Supplier Management
Describe process - Design Coordination:
Goals and objectives of service design stage are met
Describe process -Service Catalogue Management:
Provide & maintain single source of info on all operational and ready to be introduced services
Describe process - Availability Management:
Ensure level of availability in services needs agreed needs
Describe process - Capacity Management:
Capacity of services and infrastructure meets agreed capacity and performance requirements
Describe process - Information Security Management
Ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of org's assets, info, data and services match agreed needs of business
Describe process - IT Service Continuity Management
Supports Business Continuity Management (BCM) process by managing risks that could affect services
Describe process - Supplier Management
Obtain value for money from suppliers
What are the the 4 P's in Service Design?
1) People = culture, organization, skills
2) Product = systems, infrastructure, tools
3) Processes = how, where, when
4) Partners = suppliers, manufacturers, vendors
What are the 4 P's in Service Design used for?
Used to provide balanced view of overall service
What are the 5 aspects of Service Design?
1) Service Solution = Validate requirements against the Service Strategy
2) Technology & Infrastructure = Ensure compatability between architecture and service
3) Measurements = Ensure measurements against agreed service level are in place
4) Service Management Systems & Tools = Ensure tools for can support service
5) Processes = Ensure processes, roles & responsibilities can support service
What technology & architecture benefit from automation?
- Design and Modelling
- Service Catalogue
- Routing Optimization
- Service Request
- Detection and Monitoring
???Not sure I understand this. Clarify p. 128???
Why is automation of technology & architecture beneficial?
It can improve utility and warranty of services; and thus the value
What is the Service Design Package (SDP)?
A document defining all aspects of the IT Service and its requirements through each stage of its lifecycle
When is the SDP created/edited?
- New service
- Major change to service
- Removal of service
- Changed to the SDP itself
How is the SDP used?
It is passed from Service Design to Service Transition and contains information to enable:
What is the purpose of Service Catalogue Management?
Single source of info on all operational and ready for production services, and available to those who need it
What are the two views of the Service Catalogue?
1) Business Service Catalogue View = Delivered to the customers (with info on Business Processes and Services)
2) Technical Service Catalogue View = Delivered to all supporting IT services (with info on Services and Technical Domain)
Describe process - Service Level Management
Current and planned services are delivered to agreed targets/agreed service levels
What are the objectives of the Service Level Management process?
- Define, document, agree , monitor, measure, report and review the level of IT services provided
- Provide and improve relationship with business
- Monitor and improve customer satisfaction
- Ensure IT and customers have clear expectations
What is the scope of the Service Level Management process?
SLM provides a point of regular contact and communication to the customer and business managers of an org with regards to service levels
What are the three types of Service Providers?
Type 1 - Internal Service Provider = business functions within the business units they serve
Type 2 - Shared Service Unit = Functions such as IT, HR and Logistics are in a special shared service unit (not maintained at the corporate level by executives)
Type 3 - External Service Provider = Customer ma require services from external providers that can offer competitive prices and lower unit costs
What are the three Service Design Agreements?
1) Service Level Agreements (SLA's)
2) Operation Agreements (OLA's)
3) Contracts/Underpinning Contracts (UC's)
What is the SLA?
Agreement between IT service provider and the customer(s). Defines the key targets and responsibilities of both parties. A mutually beneficial agreement is reached.
What is the OLA?
Agreement between IT service provider and another part of same org that assist with service provision
What is the UC?
A contract binding agreement between two or more parties. Between third party and the IT Service Provider. The UC defines targets and accountabilities required for providing the service.
What are four SLA Frameworks?
1) Service based SLA = covers a single service
2) Customer based SLA = Covers specific customer group of all services they use
3) Corporate SLA = Covers general SLA issues for the corp.
4) Multi Level SLA = Service, Customer and Corporate SLA
What is the definition of Service Level Requirements (SLR)?
A customer requirement for an aspect of an IT service
What is the definition of SLA Monitoring (SLAM) Chart?
Monitors and reports against agreed Service Level targets (monthly report showing targets have been met, missed or threatened)
What is the definition of Service Improvement Plan (SIP)?
Overall programme or plan of prioritized improvement actions for services & processes with associated risks
What is the definition of Service Review?
Meeting between customer and the service provider to review service achievements and contribute to Service Improvement Plan
What are some SLM Activities?
-Determine, document and agree on requirements
-Negotiate, document and agree SLA for operational services
-Monitor service performance against SLA
-Collate, measure and improve customer satisfaction
-Producing service reports
-Service reviews and improvements within Service Improvement Plan
-Review & revise SLAs/OLAs, service scope and underpinning agreements
-Develop contracts and relationships
-Handle complaints and compliments
What is the purpose of Availability Management process?
Ensure the level of availability delivered in services meets the agreed availability needs/service level targets
What are the objectives of Availability Management process?
-Produce and maintain availability plan
-Ensure service availability achievements meet agreed targets
-Assist with availability related incidents and problems
-Assess impact of changes
-Improve availability of services
What is the scope of Availability Management process?
-improvement of service and component availability
What are two levels of availability?
1) Service Availability = all aspects of service availability and unavailability
2) Component Availability = all aspects of component availability and unavailability
What are two availability management activities?
1) Reactive activities - monitor, measure
2) Proactive activities - plan, design, improvement
What are four Availability Concepts?
1) Availability = ability of service/component to perform agreed functions
2) Reliability = measure of how long service/component can perform agreed functions without interruption
3) Maintainability = measure how quickly service/component can be restored when down
4) Serviceability = ability of third party suppliers to meet their terms of contract
What is Vital Business Functions (VBF)?
Reflect the part of business process that's critical to success of business
What is the purpose of the Capacity Management process?
Ensures capacity of IT service and infrastructure meets agreed capacity and performance requirements
What are the objectives of the Capacity Management process?
-Produce and maintain capacity plan
-Provide advice/guidance to business on capacity and performance issues
-Assist with performance and capacity incidents and problems
-Assess impact of changes on capacity plan
What is the scope of the Capacity Management process?
Considers all resources required to deliver service and plans for short, medium and long term requirements
What is the Capacity Plan?
Used to manage resources required to deliver services. Contains scenarios matched to patterns of business activity
What are the Capacity Sun-Processes?
1) Business Capacity Management = Demand Management and Patterns of Business Activity
2) Service Capacity Management = Service usage and workloads
3) Component Capacity Management = Use and capacity of individual technology components
What is the purpose of the Information Security Management (ISM) process?
Ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of org's assets, info, data, and services match agreed needs of business
What are the ISM concepts?
-Non-Repudiation (transactions can be trusted)
What is the Information Security Policy?
Governs the org's approach to Information Security Management
Who should the Information Security Policy be communicated to?
Everyone except for Type III service providers (third parties)
What is the purpose of the IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) process?
Manage risk that could affect IT services and that the IT service can always provide minimum agreed business continuity service levels
What are the ITSCM process activities?
-Requirements and Strategy
What is a Business Continuity Plan?
Define steps required to restore business process following disruption
What is the purpose of Business Impact Analysis (BISA?
To quantify the impact to the business that loss of service would have
What is risk?
An uncertainty of outcome, whether positive or negative
How is risk measured?
By the probability of threat, the vulnerability of assets to the threat, and impact of it occurring
Risk impact can be measured both....
Qualitative and Quantitative
What is the purpose of the supplier management process?
Ensure all contracts/agreements with suppliers support needs of business, and that contractors meet their commitments
What are the supplier categories?
What is the purpose of the Design Coordination process?
ensuer goals of service design stage are met with single point of coordination within this stage
Volume/Phase 3: Service Transition - What is it?
The phase of developing and improving capabilities for introducing new and changed service in supported environemnts. How to transition an org from one state to another while controlling risk.
What is the purpose of Service Transition?
Ensure new, modified or retired services meet expectations of business as documented in service strategy and service design stages
What are the objectives of Service Transition?
-Plan and manage service changes
-Set expectations on performance and use of new or changed service
-Ensure service changes create expected business value
-Provide knowledge and info abuot services and assets
-Manage risk to new, changed, retired services
-Deploy services releases in supported environments
What is the scope of Service Transition?
- Managing changes to services and service management processes
- Introduce new services
- Changes to existing services
- Discontinuation of services
- Transfer services to/from other providers
What is the business value of Service Transition?
- Align new/changed services with business requirements
- Maximize value to the business operations
What are the Service Transition processes?
- Service Assets & Config Management
- Change Management
- Release & Deployment Management
- Knowledge Management
- Transition Planning & Support
What Service Transition processes support all lifecycle phases?
- Change Management
- Service Asset & Config Management
- Knowledge Management
What Service Transition processes primarily support the Service Transition phase?
- Release & Deployment
- Transition Planning & Support
What is the purpose of Change Management?
To control lifecycle of all changes to be made with minimal disruption to services
What are the objectives of the Change Management Process?
- Respond to customer's changing requirements
- Respond to business request for change
- Record and evaluate change
- Record changes to config in the CMS
- Optimize business risk
What is Change?
Addition, modification, removal of anything that could have an effect on IT services
What is the scope of change?
Changes to all architecture, processes, tools, metrics, documentation and to IT services and other config items
What is Request for Change (RFC)?
A formal proposal for a change
What is a Change Proposal?
A formal proposal for major changes that involve high cost, risk or org. impact.
What do Change Models have?
- Predefined steps for handling change
- Defined order of steps and dependencies
- Defined responsibilities for staff
- Defined time scales for activity completion
- Defined Escalation procedures
What is Change Advisory Board (CAB)?
A body to support authorization of changes. Assists in change management, assessment, prioritization, scheduling of change
What is Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB)?
When a decision is needed quickly for an emergency change, the full CAB may not be available. Authorization of emergency changes will be done by this (ECAB) body.
What are the Change Types?
Normal Changed = Any service change that is not standard or emergency change
Standard Changes = Trigger defined, budget available,pPre-authorized change of low risk, common & follows procedure
Emergency Changes = Change that must be implemented a.s.a.p, designed carefully, tested before use, but documents updated after
What are Change Management Activities?
-Create and Record the RFC (request for change)
-Assess & Evaluate RFC
-Coordinate Change Implementation
-Review and Close Change
What is Remediation Planning
Action taken to recover after a failed change or release.
What processes does the Change Management process interface with?
-Programme and Project Management
-Organizational & Stakeholder Change Management
- Sourcing and Partnering
What is the purpose of the Service Asset & Config Management (SACM) process?
Ensure assets required to deliver service are controlled and info is available for them
What are the objectives of the Service Asset & Config Management (SACM) process?
- Identify, control, record, report, audit, verify services and config items (CI's)
- Identify, control assets
- Account for, manage, protect CI's
- Ensure integrity of CI's & Config
- Maintain config info
- Support service management by providing info
What is the scope of the Service Asset & Config Management (SACM) process?
Includes management of the component lifecycle of every CI (config item)
What is a Config Item (CI)?
A service asset that needs to be managed to deliver a service
What are examples of Config Items?
Assets such as:
- server licence
- software licence
What is the Configuration Management System (CMS)?
The system used to collect and manage Config Items (CI's)
What are the layers of the Configuration Management System (CMS)?
1) Data Layer
2) Information Integrity Layer
3) Knowledge Processing Layer
4) Presentation Layer
What is the Definitive Media Library?
Library where the definitive authorized versions of all media Config Items (CI's) are stored. It also includes licences and copies of documentation
What is the configuration baseline?
The config of a service, product or infrastructure that serve basis for further activities. Can only be changed by formal change procedures. Formally agreed to.
What is the Snapshot?
A snap shot of current state of a config item or an environment. Snapshot is recorded in CMS (change management system). Not always agreed to.
What is the purpose of the Release & Deployment Management process?
To plan, schedule & control the build, test & deployment of releases
What are the objectives of the Release & Deployment Management process?
-Define, agree on release & deployment management plans
-Create and test release packages
-Ensure integrity of a release package is maintained
-Deploy release packages from DML (definitive media library)
-Ensure release packages can be tracked, installed, tested, verified, and/or uninstalled
-New or changed service are capable of delivering agreed utility and warranty
- And more....
What is the scope of the Release & Deployment Management process?
Includes the processes, systems & functions to package, build, test and deploy a release in live use
What does a Release Policy include?
-Frequency of Release
-Roles and Responsibilities
-Grouping of Changes
-Early Life Support Criteria
What are the phases of Release & Deployment?
1) Release and Deployment Planning
2) Release Build and Test
4) Review and Close
What is the purpose of the Knowledge Management process?
Share perspectives, ideas, experience & info to enable informed decisions
What are the objectives of the Knowledge Management process?
-Improve quality of decision making
-Enable Service Provider to me more efficient and improve quality, reduce cost, increase satisfaction
-Ensure staff have a clear understanding of value
-Maintain Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS)
-Gather, analyse, store, share, use & maintain knowledge
What is the scope of the Knowledge Management process?
Lifecycle wide process and relevant to all lifecycles
What is Data?
A set of discrete facts
What is Information
Information comes from providing context to data
What is Knowledge?
Composed of tacit (implied) experiences, ideas, insight, values and judgement of individuals
What is Wisdom?
Makes use of knowledge to create value through well-informed decisions
What is the Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS)?
Used to store and manage knowledge, info and data.
What is stored in the Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS)?
-Configuration Management System (CMS)
-Definitive Media Library (DML)
-Service Level Agreements (SLA's)
-Operational Level Agreements (OLA's)
-Info Security Policy
-Continual Service Improvement CSI Register
What is the purpose of the Transition Planning & Support process?
Provide overall planning for service transition and coordinate resources required for it
What are the objectives of the Transition Planning & Support process?
-Plan &coordinate resources
-Coordinate activities across projects, suppliers, service teams
-Establish new or modified management info systems
-Ensure all parties adopt common framework of re-usable processes
What is the scope of the Transition Planning & Support process?
-Maintain policies, standards for service transition activities & processes
-Guide major change or new service through service transition process
Volume/Phase 4: Service Operation - What is it?
The phase of achieving effectiveness and efficiency in providing and supporting services to ensure value is provided to customer, user & service provider
What is the purpose of Service Operation
To coordinate and carry out activities and processes required to deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and customers
What are the objectives of Service Operation?
-Maintain business satisfaction & confidence in IT through delivery & support of agreed IT service
-Minimize impact of service outages on day-to-day business activities
-Ensure access to agreed IT services is only provided to those authorized
What is the scope of Service Operation?
- The services themselves
- Service management processes (even though some processes originate in at service design/transition stages, they are continually in use here)
- Technology (management of infrastructure)
What is the business value of Service Operation?
This is where the customer sees the actual value of the services
What communication is part of Service Operation?
-Routine operational communication
-Communication between shifts
-Strategy and Design communication
What processes are related to of Service Operation?
What is the purpose of Incident Management?
To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible, minimize adverse impact on business ops, ensuring hat agreed levels of service quality are maintained
What are the objectives of Incident Management?
- Ensure standard methods & procedures used fir response, analysis, documentation, ongoing management and reporting of incidents
- Increase viability and communication of incidents tp business & IT support staff
- Enhance business perception of IT through professional approach and quickly resolving and communication incidents
- Align incident management activities and priorities with those of the business
- Maintain user satisfaction with the quality of IT services
What is the scope of Incident Management?
Any event which disrupts, or which could disrupt, a service
What is an incident?
An unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in quality of IT service or failure of a CI (configuration item) that has not yet impacted IT service
Describe Time Scales of Incident Management:
-They are Based on targets in SLA's
-Captured as targets in OLA's
-Escalation based on predefined rules
What should an incident model include?
- Steps to take to handle incidents
- Chronological order of the steps (with dependencies defined)
- Responsibilities (who should do what)
- Precautions to be taken before resolution (i.e. data backup)
- Time scales and thresholds for completion of actions
- Escalation procedures
- Necessary evidence-preservation
What is a major incident?
Presents greater urgency and can have significant detrimental impact on business:
-Shorter time scale
-Different roles and responsibilities
What are the Incident Management activities?
-Identification (through user, vendor, e-mail, phone etc.)
-Categorization (drives reporting, routing, prioritization, trend data)
-Prioritization (combo of urgency and impact)
-Initial Diagnosis (service desk)/Escalation (level 2,3 support)
-Investigation & Diagnosis
-Resolution & Recovery
-Closure (surveys, documentation, formal closure)
How do you categorize an incident?
-Keep it simple
-Use multi-level categorization
-Use categorization for reporting
How do you prioritize an incident?
-A combination of urgency and impact
-Urgency: how quickly the business needs resolution
-Impact: How many services affected, how many users affected, effect on business reputation
How do you escalate an incident?
By hierarchical escalation = inform or involve more senior management to assist
Functional escalation= Transferring an incident, problem or change to a technical team with higher experience to assist
Who owns an incident?
Ownership regardless of escalation remains with the service desk
What interfacing processes are associated with Incident Management?
-Service level management
-Information security management
- Availability management
What is the purpose of Problem Management?
To prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening, to eliminate recurring incidents and to minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented
What are the objectives of Problem Management?
-Prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening
-Eliminate recurring incidents
-Minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented
What is the scope of Problem Management?
-Activities required to diagnose the root cause of incidents and to determine resolution to problems
-Ensure resolution is implemented through correct control
-Maintain info about problems, workarounds and resolutions
What is a problem?
The underlying cause of one or more failures
What is a workaround?
Way of reducing or eliminating impact of incident or problem where a resolution is not available yet
What is a known error?
Problem that has a documented root cause and workaround
What is the Known Error Database (KEDB)?
-Objective is to facilitate faster diagnosis and resolution
-Stores previous knowledge of problems & incidents
It's part of the SKMS (service knowledge management system)
-Speeds up resolution
-Concern of data quality
What is a Problem Model?
-Similar to incident model
-For problems that have an expensive solution
What are the activities associated with Problem Management?
-Investigation and diagnosis
-Create a known error record
What should Major Problem Review focus on?
-What went right
-What went wrong
-How to improve
-How to prevent recurrence
-Who was involved
When do you conduct a major problem review?
After closure and it is linked to major incident review
What is the relationship between Incidents and Problems?
Incidents never become problems. They co-exist
What two processes is Problem Management made up of?
1) Reactive = Triggered in reaction to an incident (engages problem management during an incident)
2)Proactive = Triggered by activities seeking to improve service (major problem review, trend analysis)
What processes interfaces with Problem Management?
-IT Service Continuity Management
-Service Level Management
-Release and Deployment Management
-Seven Step Improvement Process
What is the purpose of Event Management?
The ability to detect events, make sense of them and determine right control action
What are the objectives of Event Management?
-Detect all changes of state that have significance to management of a CI or IT service
-Determine appropriate control action for events + communication
-Provide trigger or entry point for execution of service operation processes
-Provide means to compare actual operating performance and behaviour against design standards and SLA's
-Provide basis for service assurance and reporting and service improvemnt
What is the scope of Event Management?
Applied to any service management that needs to be controlled and can be automated:
-Environmental conditions (fire, smoke detection)
-Software licence monitoring (ensure legal use & allocation)
-Security (intrusion detection)
-Normal activity (tracking use of application or performance)
What is an Event?
It can be defined as any change of state that has significance for the management of a Configuration Item or IT Service
What is an Alert?
Is a notification that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a failure has occured
What are three types of events?
1) Exception Events (a user attempts to logon to app with incorrect password, unusual situation in a process that may indicate an exception, a device's CPU is above acceptable use rate, PC Scan reveals installation of unauthorized softw.)
2) Warning Events (service memory use reaches within 5% of acceptable performance, completion tile is 10% longer)
3) Informational Events (scheduled workload has completed, user has logged in to use app, e-mail has reached intended recipient)
What is the purpose of Request Fulfillment?
It's he process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all service requests from users
What are the objectives of Request Fulfillment?
-maintain user and customer satisfaction
-Provide channel to request and receive service
-Provide info to users and customers re. availability of services
-Source and deliver components of requested services
-Assist with general info, complaints, comments
What is the scope of Request Fulfillment?
Up to each org to decide which service requests it will handle
What is a Service Request?
Is a request from a user for info, advice, standard change, or access to an IT service
What is the purpose of Access Management?
Tp provide the right for users to be able to use a service or group of services
What are the objectives of Access Management?
-Respond to requests for granting access
What is the scope of Access Management?
Executing the policies in information security management
What are the basic concepts of Access Management?
-Service or Service Groups
What are the Service Operation Functions?
-IT Operation Management
What does the service desk do?
-Single point of contact for users (to service provider)
-Communication to users
-Coordination for several IT groups and processes
What is the business value of the service desk?
-Reduce negative business impact
-Improve customer service, perception, satisfaction
-Increase accessibility through SPOC (single point of contact)
-More meaningful management info
What are the objectives of the service desk?
-To restore the normal service to users as quickly as possible
-Restoration of service in the widest possible sense
What are the options of organizational structures of a service desk?
-Local service desk = physically and culturally close to user community
-Centralized service desk = merging multiple service desks together
-Virtual service desk = use of technology to make up service desk, such as working from home
What is technical management?
It refers to the groups, departments or teams that provide technical expertise and overall management of the IT infrastructure
What is the role of technical management?
-Custodian if technical knowledge and expertise (managing the IT infrastructure)
-Provides the resources to support the service lifecycle
-Provide guidance to IT ops about how to carry out ongoing ops management of technology
What are the objectives of technical management?
To help plan, implement and maintain stable technical infrastructure to support the org's business processes
What are the technical management groups?
What is the purpose of IT Operations Management?
To execute the ongoing activities and procedures required to manage and maintain the IT infrastructure so as to deliver and support IT services at the agreed levels
What are the objectives of IT Operations Management?
-Day to day processes and activities
-Diagnose and resolve IT operations failures
What are the components of IT Operations Management?
-Backup and restore
-Print and output management
-Performance of maintenance activities
-Data centre Management
-Coordination consolidation projects
-Management of outsourcing contracts
What is the purpose of Application Management?
Is responsible for managing applications through their lifecycle
What is the role of Application Management?
-Custodian of technical knowledge related to managing apps
-Provide resources to support service lifecycle
-Provide guidance to IT ops about carrying out ops management of apps
-Integration of application management lifecycle into service lifecycle
What are the objectives of Application Management?
To support the org's business process by helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for application software & to assist in design & deployment, plus ongoing support and improvements
Describe the overlap between functions in the Service Operations phase:
Technical and IT Ops Management are involved in management and maintenance of IT infrastructure
Technical and Application Management are involved in design, testing, improvements of CI's
IT Ops and Application Management are involved in application support
Volume/Phase 5: Continual Service Improvement (CSI) - What is it?
The phase of creating and maintaining value for the customer through improvements to strategy, design, transition and operation of service
What is the purpose of Continual Service Improvement?
To align IT service with changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to IT services that support business processes
What are the objectives of Continual Service Improvement?
-Improvements to the entire lifecycle (review, prioritize, make recommendations)
-Focus on effectiveness and efficiency (identify and implement specific activities to improve effectiveness and efficiency)
-Using proven quality management methods
-Ensuring appropriate measurements
-Review and anlalyze service level achievements)
-Improve cost effectiveness
-Ensure applicable quality management methods are used
-Understand what to measure, why it is being measured and what the successful outcome should be
What is the scope of Continual Service Improvement?
-The overall health if ITSM as a discipline
-The continual alignment of the service portfolio with the current and future business needs
-The maturity and capability of the org, management, processes and people used by service
-Continual improvement of all aspects of the service and the assets that support them
What activities support Continual Service Improvement?
-Review mngmt info and trends (meeting agreed service levels and ensure output of enabling processes are acheiving desired results)
-Conduct maturity assessments
-Conduct internal audits (employee & process compliance)
-Review existing deliverables
What is the business value of Continual Service Improvement
Value is optimized across entire lifecycle:
-gradual and continual improvement in quality
-Service remains continuously aligned to business requirements
-Improvements in cost effectiveness
-Monitoring and reporting ti id improvement opportunities
-Id opportunities for improvements in org structure, resourcing, capabilities, partners, technology, staff skills, training, communication
What is governance and what does it do?
Ensures that policies and strategy are actually implemented and that required processes are correctly followed. It's t he single overarching are that ties IT and business together!
What is the Deming Cycle?
It is an Improvement Model:
Plan = relates to a problem
Do = completing the project activities
Check = review or audit of activities and outcomes
Act = focus on improving capabilities based on Plan, Do, Check.
What is the CSI approach?
It's an Improvement Model based on the Deming Cycle:
1) What is the vision?
2) Where are we now (establish baseline)?
3) Where do we want to be (agree on goals)?
4) How do we get there (detail plan)?
5) Did we get there (measure)?
6) How do we keep momentum going (Embed culture of change)?
What is the purpose of the even steps to improvement?
Define and manage the steps needed to identify, define, gather, process, analyze, present and implement improvements
What are the seven steps to improvement? E!
1) Identify strategy for improvement (vision, strategy, goals)
2) Define what you will measure
3) Gather the data (Who? How? When? Data integrity?)
4) Process the data (frequency? Format? System? Accuracy?)
5) Analyze Data (Trends? Targets? Improvements Required?)
6) Present and use the info, assessment,summary, action plans)
7) Implement Improvement
What is the scope of the seven steps to improvement? E!
-Analysis of he performance and capabilities of services and processes
- Continual alignment of portfolio of IT services with business needs (current, future)
-Making best use of technology
- The org structure, capabilities of staff, appropriate functions and roles, required skills
What are the objectives of the seven steps to improvement? E!
-Identify opportunities for improvements
-Identify what to measure
-Review service achievements
-Continually align and realign service provision with outcome requirements
-Understand what to measure, why and define successful outcome
What is the CSI register?
The Continual Service Improvement Register: Is kept to record all the improvement opportunities
What is a base line measurement?
A point of reference for continual improvement. Used as a starting point to measure effect of a service improvement plan
What levels are baselines established at?
-Strategic = Goals and Objectives
-Tactical = Process and Maturity
-Operational = Metrics and KPI's
What types of metrics are there and what are they?
- Technology Metrics = component and application metrics such as performance, availability
- Process Metrics = CSF's, KPI's and activitty metrics for service management process
- Service Metrics = measure of end to end service performance, using individual technology and process metrics
What are CSF's?
Critical Success Factors = Something that must happen if a process, project plan, or IT service is to succeed
What are KPI's?
Key Performance Indicators = A metric used to measure achievement to a CSF and help manage a process, service or activity (balance of effectiveness, efficiency and cost effectiveness)
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