26 terms

Genetics CH11

These flashcards are for students at Ottawa Hills HS who wish to practice their vocabulary skills for CH 11 on genetics. Study well!
STUDY
PLAY
CHROMOSOMES
long strands of packaged DNA
HEREDITY
means passing traits from parents to offspring
ACQUIRED TRAIT
A trait an organism DID NOT get from its parent
TRAITS
another name for characteristics (size, shape, color and other features.)
GENES
Pieces of the DNA on each chromosome that code for traits.
MITOSIS
cell division process resulting in 2 identical cells with the same number of chromosomes
MEIOSIS
cell division process resulting in 4 different cells with half the chromosomes
DIPLOID
cell with a full number of chromosomes
HAPLOID
cell with half the number of chromosomes
GENETICS
study of how characteristics are passed from parent to offspring
DNA
molecule that carries genetic information
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
pairs of chromosomes that code for the same traits
INHERITED TRAIT
trait passed-down from parent to offspring
NUCLEOTIDE
Basic unit of DNA. Sugar + Phosphate + Base
BASE
A, T, C, or G the chemicals that make-up the "genetic code"
SYNTHESIS
Making something new from other parts
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Making proteins from a DNA Template
DNA REPLICATION
Making an exact copy of DNA
CODON
set of 3 bases in mRNA
ANTI-CODON
set of 3 bases in tRNA that matches-up with an mRNA codon
tRNA
Transfer RNA - brings an amino acid to a ribosome
mRNA
Messenger RNA - makes a transcript (kind of like a copy) of DNA
AMINO ACID
Building block of proteins
MUTATION
Error in DNA
DOUBLE HELIX
Structure of DNA
WATSON, CRICK, & FRANKLIN
Scientists who discovered DNA's structure
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