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A religious outlook that sees many gods in many aspects of nature and uses them to help "control" and explain nature


Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern southern Turkey; had a larger population and a greater degree of social stratification than other urban cultures at the time

Catal Huyuk

The humanoid species that emerged as the most successful at the end of the Paleolithic period

Homo Sapien

Means of obtaining food by human species prior to the adaptation of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of band social organization

Hunting and Gathering

Early walled urban culture site based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern Israeli-occupied West Bank near Jordan River


A series of cave paintings discovered in France in 1940, which probably served a ritualistic or religious purpose for the Paleolithic people who created them

Lascaux Paintings

Family descent and inheritance traced through the female line


Pre-agricultural culture; located in present-day Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon; practiced the collection of naturally present barley and wheat to supplement game; typified by large settlement sites

Natufian Complex

A species of the genus Homo that disappeared at the end of the Paleolithic period


The succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture, 8500-3500 B.C.E.

Neolithic Revolution

A nomadic agricultural lifestyle based on herding domesticated animals; tended to produce independent people capable of challenging sedentary agricultural societies


The Old Stone Age Ending in 12,000 B.C.E.; typified by the use of stone tools and hunting and gathering for subsistence

Paleolithic Age

An intermediate form of ecological adaptation in which temporary forms of cultivation are carried out with little impact on the natural ecology

Shifting Cultivation

These are among the most common artifacts of each early human culture, some dating back to 25,000 B.C.E., they have been used by archaeologists to help better understand gender relations in the prehistoric period

Venus Figurines

In comparison to the position of women in hunting and gathering societies, the social status of women in sedentary agricultural communities

A. Declined
B. Allowed them to monopolized the religious and political elites
C. Stayed the same
D. Improved


Lifestyles of intensive hunting and gathering groups living in permanent locations remained precarious because

A. They remained vulnerable to attacks from nomadic groups
B. They failed to develop better shelters of more secure supplies of food
C. They failed to increased the size of hunting and gathering bands
D. They were dependent on particular animals and plants that could disappear if changed in climate occurred


The greatest challenge to sedentary agriculture was a form of social organization based on intensive herding known as

A. Pastoralism
B. Hunting and gathering
C. Civilization
D. Bands


The Neolithic Revolution caused the population of humans to

A. Abandon hunting and gathering as a means of subsistence
B. Decline as fewer people were needed to produce more food
C. Stay the same as few people because sedentary
D. Increase from eight million to 60 or 70 million


The concept of civilization based on racial characteristics was

A. Common among the Chinese
B. Developed by thinkers in western Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries
C. Never taken seriously
D. Adopted by the Romans and the Greeks


Neanderthals probably

A. Shared their belief in life after death with homo sapiens
B. Mated with homo sapiens and contributed to DNA to modern homo sapiens
C. Taught their intensive hunting methods to homo sapiens
D. Had little impact on the development of homo sapiens


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