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absolute monarchy

when a royal family has ultimate power and seeks to control all aspects of society

divine right

the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on Earth and are therefore only answerable to God


an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society... Questioned society and government began to think of more fair forms of government... Led to many revolutions

geocentric theory

an earth centered view of the universe in which scholars believed the earth was immobile, located at the center of the universe

Galileo Galilee

an Italian scientist who built his own telescope, and wrote his own book that announced that Jupiter had four moons, the sun had dark spots, and that the moon was made of a rough uneven surface. These observations shattered Aristotle's theory that all stars were made of a pure substance. He supported Copernicus.

heliocentric theory

the idea that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun- Copernicus

John Locke

a philosopher that believed that people could improve from their past mistakes . He favored self government and was very influential.


an influential French writer, who devoted himself to study political liberty. Wrote "On the Spirit of Laws".

scientific method

a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.

Scientific Revolution

a major change in European thought starting in the mid 1500s in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.

separation of powers

3 branches of government- executive, legislative, and judicial


polish cleric/astronomer who reasoned that the universe was heliocentric which contradicted religious views.


the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region

continental system

Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe to destroy Britain's economy

coup d'etat

a sudden seizure of power in a nation (example- Napoleon)

declaration of the rights of man

the National Assembly adopted the statement of revolutionary ideals- equality/ rights for all- Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

estates general

an assembly of representatives from all 3 of the estates or social classes in France.

first estate

clergy members- 10% of land, provided education and relief to the poor, only 2% of their income went to the government

second estate

rich nobles- 2% of population, 20% of land and almost no taxes to the government

third estate

97% of population, supported enlightenment ideas, not enough land to go around, a lot of their income went to the government. Bourgeoisie- 3rd estate middle class

French Revolution

the rebellion of the French people, beginning in 1789, against the monarchy and the class structure of the Old Regime

Louis XVI

weak leader, well intentions- really wanted to improve the lives of his people, but he lacked the ability to make decisions and the determination to see policies through. When he did make decisions they were made from poor advice he was given.

Maximilien Robespierre

A Jacobin leader who gained power- wanted to build a republic of virtue, wiping out every trace of France's past. He didn't support religion, so he closed all churches and prevented people from worshiping.


coup d'etat- seized power of France in late 1799, became dictator . His goal was to help economy. He signed a concordant with the church and established a new relationship between the church and the state. He was made emperor in 1804 (the pope took the crown off his own head and put it on _____). He made an empire.

Napoleonic code

a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napolean

Old Regime

the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution. Class system, not supported by lower class.

Three Costly Mistakes

The Continental System, the Peninsular War, and the Invasion of Russia caused Napoleon's empire to collapse.

Reign of Terror

mid 1793 to mid 1794 when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed.

The National Assembly

a French congress established by the representatives of the third estate in 1787 to enact laws and reforms for French citizens

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1780- mob searching for gunpowder and arms stormed the Bastille- a Paris prison- seized control of the building. There were some deaths including the guards. It was a symbolic act of the revolution and is now a french holiday

scorched earth policy

the procedure of burning crops and killing livestock during war so the enemy can't live off of the land

Congress of Vienna

meeting in 1814-1815 in which the European leaders wanted long lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon.

Prince Klemens von Metternich

the foreign minister of Austria- distrusted democratic ideals, plan- containment of France, balance of power, restore Europe's royal families to thrones from before Napoleon's rule

Simon Bolivar

George Washington of South America.
wealthy Venezuelan creole. He was a liberator who worked with San Martin to gain independence- succeeded

Miguel Hidalgo

1810- priest in Dolores who took the first step toward independence. He was poor but well educated- believed in enlightenment. He signaled the call for rebellion, but was defeated.


the colonists in a Spanish colonial society who were born in Latin America to parents born in Spain.


a person of mixed Native American and Spanish descent

Berlin Conference

a meeting in 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the colonization of Africa

Boer War

a conflict from 1899-1902 in which the Boers and the British fought for control of South African land


the British controlled portions of Inida in the years 1757-1947 direct control

Direct Rule

foreign officials brought in to rule, no self rule, goal: assimilation, government institutions are based only on European styles

indirect rule

local government officials used, limited self rule, goal: develop future leaders, government institutions based on European styles but may have local rules


a policy in which a strong cation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically or socially (ex- Europe and Africa) can be good or bad depending on your perspective


the idea that government should NOT interfere with or regulate industries and businesses


the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation- that is to the people with whom they share a culture and history rather than to a king/empire... Canberra good or bad


an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity


a policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights


a country or territory with its own internal government but under control of outside power

Sepoy Mutiny

an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India during the period of imperialism... Defeat caused raj

Boxer Rebellion

a 1900 revolt in China, aimed at ending foreign influence in the country... The boxers hated Christianity so they tried to use their fists to try to get Europe out of china but they lost because Europe had machine guns

Social Darwinism

the application of Charles Darwin's ideas about survival of the fittest to human societies- justification for imperialist expansion.... Europe believed they were the fittest so they must help the less fortunate

Sphere of Influence

a foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities... Only happened in china

Opium War

a conflict between Britain and China, lasting from 1839-1842 over Britain's opium trade in China

Standard of Living

a general measure of the quality of life


the growth of cities and the migration of people into them

supply and demand

one of 3 natural laws of economics- enough goods would be produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand in market economy

Karl Marx

German journalist who introduced radical socialism-Marxism-. Also wrote the Communist Manifesto with Engels


radical form of socialism

scramble for Africa

interest in colonization- no country wanted to be left out of the race- began in 1880, everyone fought over African Territory

Giuseppe Garibaldi

led a small army of Italian nationalistic soldiers known as the Red Shirts, captured Sicily

Otto von Bismarck

prime minister of Prussia- master of real politick- single handedly united Germany. Many regard him as a hero. He also helped to form many alliances in WWI... He started wars he knew he would win to gain nationalism in Germany... Believed in blood and iron... Real politick


an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all


a policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army always ready for war

trench warfare

a form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battle field

Treaty of Versailles

the peace treaty signed by Germany and the allied powers after WWI

League of Nations

an international association formed after WWI with the goal of keeping peace among nations

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