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Chapter 1 What is programing
Terms in this set (35)
A program is a sequence of instructions that makes a computer perform a desired task.
A programmer is a person who writes a program for a computer
Means you are directly manipulating the 1s and 0s of the computer's binary language
In some cases this means you are manipulating the wires of the machine. In other cases this means you are manipulating the machine
Assembly Language was first introduced by the British with EDSAC
EDSAC had an assembler called Initial Orders which used single-letter mnemonic Symbols to represent different series of bits.
Wrote the first compiler (a type of translator) in 1952 for the languages A-O. This paved the way for other languages that followed. Many of these were also created in part or in whole by Grace Hopper
Languages that function at, or very close to ones and 0s. Powerful but very difficult
High Level Languages
Languages that use English-like words as instructions Easier, but less powerful
EX: BASIC, Pascal, COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/1
Very High Level Languages
Languages that use clickables pictures as instruction.
EX: Lego Mindstorms NXT
A translator (Compiler or interpreter) translate a high-level machine into low level machine code
A compiler translates the entire program into an executable file before execution.
An interpreter translates one program statement at a time during execution
(1957) The first successful high-level language
Developed by a time of mathematicians, scientist, and engineers. While good for number crunching FORTRAN could not handle the record processing required for the business world.
FORTRAN stands for FORmula TRANslation
(1958)LISP (LISt Processing) was designed by John McCarthy at MIT it is known for being one of the languages specifically designed to help develop artificial language
Created (largely by Grace Hopper) for the business community and the armed forces COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language COBOL Became extremely successful when the department of Defense adopted COBOL
FORTRAN programmers wanted computers that were better suited for numbing.
(1960)COBOL programmers wanted computers that were suited for record handling
Companies like IBM would have different models for "FORTRAN programmers" and "COBOL programmers"
PL/1 stands for Programming Language 1.
(1964)After IBM standardized hardware with system/360,they set out to standardized software as well by creating PL/1
Tom Kurtz and John Kemeny created BASIC (Beginners All-purpose symbolic instruction code) at Dartmouth college Their intention was that a simple language would give non-math and non-science majors the ability to use computers. The use of BASIC became widespread when personal computers hit the market. The first Altair in 1976. BASIC required little memory.
College professors did not like BASIC because it did not teach proper programming structure. Instead, it taught quick-and-dirty programming. He named this new language Pascal after Blaise Pascal
Unlike PL/1, Pascal is a very lean language. It has just enough of both the math features of FORTRAN and the record
In 1966, BCPL(basic combined Programming Language) Was designed at the university of Cambridge by Martin Richards. IN 1969, Hen Thompson, from AT&T bell labs, created a slimmed down version of BCPL which was simply referred to as B. In 1972, an improved version of B was released this was called C
As computer programs grew more complex a new, more powerful, and more reliable type of programming was needed. This lead to the development of OOP (Object Oriented Programming) Bjarne Stroustrup wanted to create a new language that uses OOP, But did not want Programmers to have to learn a new language from scratch. HE took the existing, very popular language C and added OOP to it This new language became C++. In 1997, C++ replaced Pascal as the official
C and C++ are sometimes considered to be medium level languages This is because they have the English commands of High-Level language as well as the power of a low level language. This made C, and later C++, very popular with professional programmers
(1995) Released in 1995 by Sun Microsystems. Java is a Platform Independent Language.
Platform Independence means that the language does not cause problems as programs are transported between different hardware and software platforms.
Unlike c++, were OOP is optional,JAVA requires you to use OOP which caused many universities to adopt it.
For ths reason in 2003, JAVA replaced C++ as the official language For the AP Computer Science Exam
Lego Mindstorm NXT
A new kind of programming has come about that is very high level. In this style of programming the programmers cana click on different block. Each block performs a different task. By a creating a sequence of these blocks, you can program a computer. In 1998, the Lego Corporation created their first point and click Language for use with their Lego Mindstorms Robots.
Early personal computers were not networked at all
Every computers were hooked up to printers and many others were not If you needed to print something, And you were
The first practical networks for personal computers were peer-to-peer networks.
These are small groups of computers with a common purpose all connected to each other These types of networks were frequently called local area networks or LANS
A server is a special computer that is connected to the LAN for one or more purposes
It services the other computers in the network which are called clients. Servers can be used for printing, logon authentications, permanent data storage and communication
(Internet Service Provider)
This will cost money and every person, every school, every business, who wants this access needs to use an Internet Service Providers or ISP You pay a monthly fee to the ISP for the internet connection the amount of money you pay depends on the speed of your Internet Connecetion
Traditionally, the introductory courses in computer science focus on _______________.
What does ISP stand for?
Internet Service Provider
Refer to your answer to the previous question. Why are these languages considered "low-level?"
The intention was that PL/I would be "everything for everyone". The reality was this language was not popular. Explain why.
One side didn't like the others features and new programmers found it too complex to learn
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