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Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic and immune system?
b) Maintaining water homeostasis in the body
Describe how lymphatic capillaries are one-way only vessels.
Ans: The ends of the endothelial cells in the wall of the lymphatic capillary overlap. When the pressure is higher in the interstitial fluid than in the lymph, the cells seprate slightly allowing interstitial fluid into the vessel. When pressure is greater inside, the cells are tightly packed, not allowing the lymph to cross back into the interstitial fluid.
The skeletal muscle and respiratory pumps are used in
e) Lymphatic, Immune and Cardiovascular systems
Describe how edema can form.
Ans: Edema can form by obstruction to lymph flow or increased capillary blood pressure causing interstitial fluid to form faster than it is reabsorbed.
Describe the barriers used in innate defense.
Ans: Barriers used by the innate defense include epidermis, mucus, hairs, cilia, lacrimal apparatus, saliva, urnie, vaginal secretions, sebum, perspiration and gastric juices.
These anti-microbial substances will diffuse to uninfected cells and reduce production of viral proteins.
These anti-microbial substances promote cytolysis, phagocytosis and inflammation.
c) Complement proteins
Which of the following intensifies the effect of interferons and promotes the rate of repair?
Which of the below do NOT induce vasodilation and permeability (increased fluid flow) to an infection site.
Which of the following is responsible for diversity in the immune system?
d) MHC and antigen receptors
This can only become activated when bound to a foreign antigen and simultaneously recieving a co stimulate.
a) B Cell
These display CD 4 in their membrane and are associated with MHC class II molecules.
b) Helper T Cells
List the five actions of antibodies.
Ans: Antibodies can act as a neutralizing agent, they can immobilize bacteria, agglutinate and precipitate the antigen, activate the compement and enhance phagoytosis.
This will lead to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis and bursting of microbes.
d) Classical and Alternative complement systems
This is characterized by the inability of the immune system to protect the body from a pathogen.
a) immunodeficiency diseases
This is the ability of an antigen to react specifically with the antibodies or cells it has provoked.
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