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Founded 1607; bad site: low, swampy, hot, humid, outbreaks of malaria, thick woods, near a powerful Indian tribe
-no immunity: malaria weakened, killed colonists, no women

John Smith

Restored Jamestown and led it back to survival


profitable crop in Jamestown
-John Rolfe: produced first crops

London Company (later became the Virginia Company)

Tried to promote and make Jamestown a profitable place
-ultimately FAILED (1624)

headright system

system of distributing land in Virginia by the London Co./Virginia Co.
-encouraged family groups to migrate together, since the more family members traveled to America, the larger the landholding the family would receive (50 acres/person)
-in return: paid the company annually per _____

House of Burgesses (7/30/1619)

First meeting of a representative assembly

Maryland Toleration Act

Freedom of worship to all Christians in Maryland

Bacon's Rebellion (1676, Virginia)

Led by Nathaniel Bacon (aristocratic man with political ambitions), he and concerned backcountry landowners started an unauthorized assault against the attacking Indians that became a military challenge to the colonial government
-LARGEST AND MOST POWERFUL REBELLION in the history of the colonies (until the Rev.)
-BG info: backcountry grievances( in constant danger of attack from Indians because many of these settlements were on lands reserved for Indians by treaty)
-significance: struggle to define boundary of Indian and white lands, showed how unwilling the English settlers were to follow Indian treaties, showed how unwilling the Indians were to tolerate white movement, competition between eastern and western landowners, THE POTENTIAL FOR INSTABILITY

Pilgrims (migrating PURITANS)

migrating Puritans who settled for religious freedom
-1620: left England on the Mayflower
-settled in PLYMOUTH, Massachusetts/aka "Plymouth Plantation"
-Mayflower Compact

Plymouth, Massachusetts


Mayflower Compact

After the Pilgrims realized that they had no legal basis for settling in Plymouth (outside London/VA Co.'s territory), 41 male passengers signed a document, which established a civil gov't and proclaimed their allegiance to the king

Plymouth Plantation

aka Plymouth

William Bradford

leader, historian, gov'r of the Pilgrims
-distributed land among families, paid off the colony's debt

Massachusetts Bay Co.

Group of Puritan merchants who got a land grant in New England for most of today's Massachusetts and New Hampshire; got a charter from the king that let them create this company and establish a colony
-people who wanted it to become a place for Puritans in New England bought out the investors

John Winthrop

Gov'r of the Massachusetts Bay Co. and colony
-"city upon a hill" speech

Great migration (1630)

The Massachusetts Bay Co. expedition from England to New England: largest single migration at the time

Puritans (Massachusetts)

Serious, pious people

"city upon a hill"

Winthrop's speech that said that the Massachusetts colony could serve as a model for the rest of the world as a holy commonwealth

theocracy (Puritans in Massachusetts)

A society in which the church and state were one

Thomas Hooker

Massachusetts minister who defied the Massachusetts gov't and led his congregation to establish Hartford, Connecticut (1635)
-Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

Constitution by the people of Hartford and 2 other towns

Roger Williams

Controversial young minister, conformed Separatist who called for a complete separation of church and state: was banished
-established Providence, RHODE ISLAND (1644): freedom of religion

Anne Hutchinson

Argued that the Massachusetts clergy members were not among the "elect" (no conversion experience) and therefore had no right to spiritual office
-questioned the role of women in Puritan society, had a large following
-was banished

Pequot War (1637, Connecticut)

First major Indian conflict; over a competition of trade with the Dutch and land problems
-Pequot Indians lost, were almost wiped out

King Philip's War (1675, Massachusetts)

Indian tribe led by King Philip rose up to resist the English intrusions into their lands and imposed English law
-Indians terrorized Massachusetts towns
-whites won

Restoration colonies

Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire: all proprietorships granted by King Charles II to men who had helped him reclaim the throne

Proprietary colonies

Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania:grants of land given to faithful courtiers by Charles II


Given to 8 of Charles' court favorites
-religious freedom to anyone who would worship as a Christian
-political freedom: laws made by a representative assembly
-constitution: created an elaborate system of land distribution and social order
-north and south regions were separated and very distinct: colony was eventually divided into 2 separate ones

New York

Was once owned by the Dutch and called New Amsterdam
-1674: English conquered it
-lots of racial diversity
-no representative assembly
-power in the colony widely and unequally dispersed

Quakers (Pennsylvania)

Dissenting English Protestants who wanted freedom of religion, asylum ( weren't wanted anywhere), and their own social order
-no predestination and original sin: divinity within self, work for salvation
-women in the church
-no church gov't, only representative meetings
-no paid clergy

William Penn (Quaker, Pennsylvania)

English Quaker who wanted to find a place for them: became a proprietor of the colony Pennsylvania
-holy experiment
-respected by Indians
-Charter of Liberties

holy experiment (Penn, Pennsylvania)

Penn's endeavor to guarantee religious freedom, fair governance, a peaceful society, and equality for all citizens in Pennsylvania
-integrated Quaker beliefs into Pennsylvania's system of government

Charter of Liberties (1701, Pennsylvania)

Established a representative assembly in Pennsylvania


Colony's founders a group of unpaid trustees led by Oglethorpe who wanted the colony to be a military barrier against Spanish lands and a refuge for the impoverished
-representative assembly

James Oglethorpe

A founder of Georgia


Colonies would provide a market for England's manufactured goods and a source for raw materials it could not produce at home = increasing the total wealth of the nation
-England would have to exclude foreigners from colonial trade
-sometimes it was more profitable to trade goods that England did import with others (later restricted by the Navigation Acts)

Navigation Acts (3)

By England: designed to regulate colonial commerce more strictly
-1. 1660: closed the colonies to all trade except the English, colonists to export certain items only to England
-2. 1663: all goods being shipped from Europe to the colonies had to go through England first
-3. 1673: imposed duties on coastal trade among the English colonies, provided for the appt of customs officials to enforce these acts

Dominion of New England (1686, FAILED)

James II combined the gov't of Massachusetts with the go'v of the rest of the New England colonies; 1688: with NY and NJ too
-eliminated existing assemblies
-appointed one gov'r: Andros

Glorious Revolution

Bloodless coup that resulted in William and Mary (James' daughter) becoming joint sovereigns of England: OVERTHROW OF JAMES II
-William and Mary ended of the Dominion, separate colonial gov'ts restored, COMBINED Massachusetts and Plymouth into a royal colony (1691)

Leisler's Rebellion (1689, NY)

Jacob Leisler (prosperous merchant) led a group of colonists who were angry at the gov'r (Nicholson): raised a militia, captured the city fort, drove the go'v into exile
-Leisler proclaimed himself the new gov'r: was eventually killed

John Coode's Rebellion (1689, Maryland)

Coode started a revolt that drove out the Catholic Lord Baltimore's (head of colony) officials in the name of Protestantism

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