41 terms

Ch. 2: Transplantations and Borderlands

Founded 1607; bad site: low, swampy, hot, humid, outbreaks of malaria, thick woods, near a powerful Indian tribe
-no immunity: malaria weakened, killed colonists, no women
John Smith
Restored Jamestown and led it back to survival
profitable crop in Jamestown
-John Rolfe: produced first crops
London Company (later became the Virginia Company)
Tried to promote and make Jamestown a profitable place
-ultimately FAILED (1624)
headright system
system of distributing land in Virginia by the London Co./Virginia Co.
-encouraged family groups to migrate together, since the more family members traveled to America, the larger the landholding the family would receive (50 acres/person)
-in return: paid the company annually per _____
House of Burgesses (7/30/1619)
First meeting of a representative assembly
Maryland Toleration Act
Freedom of worship to all Christians in Maryland
Bacon's Rebellion (1676, Virginia)
Led by Nathaniel Bacon (aristocratic man with political ambitions), he and concerned backcountry landowners started an unauthorized assault against the attacking Indians that became a military challenge to the colonial government
-LARGEST AND MOST POWERFUL REBELLION in the history of the colonies (until the Rev.)
-BG info: backcountry grievances( in constant danger of attack from Indians because many of these settlements were on lands reserved for Indians by treaty)
-significance: struggle to define boundary of Indian and white lands, showed how unwilling the English settlers were to follow Indian treaties, showed how unwilling the Indians were to tolerate white movement, competition between eastern and western landowners, THE POTENTIAL FOR INSTABILITY
Pilgrims (migrating PURITANS)
migrating Puritans who settled for religious freedom
-1620: left England on the Mayflower
-settled in PLYMOUTH, Massachusetts/aka "Plymouth Plantation"
-Mayflower Compact
Plymouth, Massachusetts
Mayflower Compact
After the Pilgrims realized that they had no legal basis for settling in Plymouth (outside London/VA Co.'s territory), 41 male passengers signed a document, which established a civil gov't and proclaimed their allegiance to the king
Plymouth Plantation
aka Plymouth
William Bradford
leader, historian, gov'r of the Pilgrims
-distributed land among families, paid off the colony's debt
Massachusetts Bay Co.
Group of Puritan merchants who got a land grant in New England for most of today's Massachusetts and New Hampshire; got a charter from the king that let them create this company and establish a colony
-people who wanted it to become a place for Puritans in New England bought out the investors
John Winthrop
Gov'r of the Massachusetts Bay Co. and colony
-"city upon a hill" speech
Great migration (1630)
The Massachusetts Bay Co. expedition from England to New England: largest single migration at the time
Puritans (Massachusetts)
Serious, pious people
"city upon a hill"
Winthrop's speech that said that the Massachusetts colony could serve as a model for the rest of the world as a holy commonwealth
theocracy (Puritans in Massachusetts)
A society in which the church and state were one
Thomas Hooker
Massachusetts minister who defied the Massachusetts gov't and led his congregation to establish Hartford, Connecticut (1635)
-Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Constitution by the people of Hartford and 2 other towns
Roger Williams
Controversial young minister, conformed Separatist who called for a complete separation of church and state: was banished
-established Providence, RHODE ISLAND (1644): freedom of religion
Anne Hutchinson
Argued that the Massachusetts clergy members were not among the "elect" (no conversion experience) and therefore had no right to spiritual office
-questioned the role of women in Puritan society, had a large following
-was banished
Pequot War (1637, Connecticut)
First major Indian conflict; over a competition of trade with the Dutch and land problems
-Pequot Indians lost, were almost wiped out
King Philip's War (1675, Massachusetts)
Indian tribe led by King Philip rose up to resist the English intrusions into their lands and imposed English law
-Indians terrorized Massachusetts towns
-whites won
Restoration colonies
Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire: all proprietorships granted by King Charles II to men who had helped him reclaim the throne
Proprietary colonies
Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania:grants of land given to faithful courtiers by Charles II
Given to 8 of Charles' court favorites
-religious freedom to anyone who would worship as a Christian
-political freedom: laws made by a representative assembly
-constitution: created an elaborate system of land distribution and social order
-north and south regions were separated and very distinct: colony was eventually divided into 2 separate ones
New York
Was once owned by the Dutch and called New Amsterdam
-1674: English conquered it
-lots of racial diversity
-no representative assembly
-power in the colony widely and unequally dispersed
Quakers (Pennsylvania)
Dissenting English Protestants who wanted freedom of religion, asylum ( weren't wanted anywhere), and their own social order
-no predestination and original sin: divinity within self, work for salvation
-women in the church
-no church gov't, only representative meetings
-no paid clergy
William Penn (Quaker, Pennsylvania)
English Quaker who wanted to find a place for them: became a proprietor of the colony Pennsylvania
-holy experiment
-respected by Indians
-Charter of Liberties
holy experiment (Penn, Pennsylvania)
Penn's endeavor to guarantee religious freedom, fair governance, a peaceful society, and equality for all citizens in Pennsylvania
-integrated Quaker beliefs into Pennsylvania's system of government
Charter of Liberties (1701, Pennsylvania)
Established a representative assembly in Pennsylvania
Colony's founders a group of unpaid trustees led by Oglethorpe who wanted the colony to be a military barrier against Spanish lands and a refuge for the impoverished
-representative assembly
James Oglethorpe
A founder of Georgia
Colonies would provide a market for England's manufactured goods and a source for raw materials it could not produce at home = increasing the total wealth of the nation
-England would have to exclude foreigners from colonial trade
-sometimes it was more profitable to trade goods that England did import with others (later restricted by the Navigation Acts)
Navigation Acts (3)
By England: designed to regulate colonial commerce more strictly
-1. 1660: closed the colonies to all trade except the English, colonists to export certain items only to England
-2. 1663: all goods being shipped from Europe to the colonies had to go through England first
-3. 1673: imposed duties on coastal trade among the English colonies, provided for the appt of customs officials to enforce these acts
Dominion of New England (1686, FAILED)
James II combined the gov't of Massachusetts with the go'v of the rest of the New England colonies; 1688: with NY and NJ too
-eliminated existing assemblies
-appointed one gov'r: Andros
Glorious Revolution
Bloodless coup that resulted in William and Mary (James' daughter) becoming joint sovereigns of England: OVERTHROW OF JAMES II
-William and Mary ended of the Dominion, separate colonial gov'ts restored, COMBINED Massachusetts and Plymouth into a royal colony (1691)
Leisler's Rebellion (1689, NY)
Jacob Leisler (prosperous merchant) led a group of colonists who were angry at the gov'r (Nicholson): raised a militia, captured the city fort, drove the go'v into exile
-Leisler proclaimed himself the new gov'r: was eventually killed
John Coode's Rebellion (1689, Maryland)
Coode started a revolt that drove out the Catholic Lord Baltimore's (head of colony) officials in the name of Protestantism