Terms in this set (21)
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Description: Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest of the epithelia
Function: Allows passage of materials by diffusion filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae
Location: Kidnet glomerul; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity (serosae)
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Description: Single layer of cube like cells with large, spherical central nuclei
Function: Secretion and absorption
Location: Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface
Description: Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)
Function: Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action.
Location: Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gallbladder, and execretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.
Description: Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia.
Function: Secretion, particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action.
Location: Nonciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Description: Thick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous); in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers
Function: Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
Location: Nonkeratinized type of forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane.
Description: Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch.
Function: Stretches readily and permits dissension of urinary organ by contained urine
Location: Lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra.
Loose Connective Tissue, Areolar
Description: Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells
Function: Wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; plays important role in inflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid
Location: Widely distributed under epithelia of body e.g. forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries
Description: Matrix as in areolar, but vary sparse; closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet.
Function: Provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs.
Location: Under skin in the hypodermic; around kidneys and eyeballs; within abdomen in breasts.
Description: Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network
Function: Fibers form a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages.
Location: Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen).
Dense Connective Tissue, Dense Regular
Description: Primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast.
Function: Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction.
Location: Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses.
DCT, Dense irregular
Description: Primary irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast
Function: Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength.
Location: Fibrous capsules of organs and of joints; dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract
Description: Dense regular connection tissue containing a high proportion of elastic fibers
Functions: Allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration
Location: Walls of large arteries; within certain ligaments associated with the vertebral column; within the walls of the bronchial tubes.
Description: Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacunae.
Function: Supports and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress
Location: Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs ; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx
Description: Similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix
Function: Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility.
Location: Supports the external ear (pinna); epiglottis
Description: Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate
Function: Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
Location: Intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint.
(Bone) Osseous Tissue
Description: Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie i lacunae. Very well vascularized
Function: Bone supports and protects (by enclosing); provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)
Description: Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
Function: Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances
Location: Contained with blood vessels
Description: Neurons are branching cells; cell processes that nucleus-containing cell body; also contributing to nervous tissue are nonirratible supporting cells\
Function: Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors (muscles and glands) which control their activity
Location: Brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Description: Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; obvious striations
Function: Voluntary movement; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expression; voluntary control
Location: In skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Description: Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs).
Function: As it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control.
Location: The walls of the heart
Smooth Muscle Tissue
Description: Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei; no striations; cells arranged closely to form sheets.
Function: Propels substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways; involuntary control.
Location: Mostly in the walls of hollow organs.