66 terms

Archy 205 Midterm #1

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Otzi
iceman found at the border of Austria and Italy. Revealed a lot about his life and the past culture. Rare because the whole body was perfectly preserved and his belongings were with him as well.
Carson-Stillwater Survey
on a desert, they found a cave but decided that this is just the beginning. So they decided to survey the marsh since they utilized the wetland so they should find stone tools there. And if they go to the uplands they should find projectile points, small campsites. First summer they used random sampling, the second summer they used stratified random sampling. They thought most population would be near wetlands, but was actually in the dunes and the forests. Wetlands were used for temporary settlement because of the stone tools found and not the uplands. Both their hypothesis were wrong and they are still trying to solve it.
Gatecliff Shelter
a rockshelter (rock overhang that is deep enough for shelter but not deep enough to be called a cave) in Nevada and they found ecofacts (items relating to the natural environment) and features (nonportable evidence of technology) 1970, found by David Hurst Thomas with the help of people in a bar who had some info on the location of a strange cave.
Mission Santa Catalina
on St. Catherines Island. Hard to survey because there was a lot of plants and dangerous wildlife. Surface and subsurface testing only came up with a few pieces of evidence. Then they used remote sensing (the application of methods that employ some form of electromagnetic energy to detect and measure characteristics of an archaeological target). Used ariel photography to detect buried remains. Used proton precession magnetometer (a remote sensing technique that measures the strength of magnetism between the earth's magnetic core and a sensor controlled by the archaeologist magnetic anomalies can indicate the presence of buried walls or features) and found three places where something was buried. They turned out to be a well, a daub (the stick and paste on) wall that burned and fell on top of artifacts, and a church surrounded by a graveyard - the heart of the mission. Also used soil resistivity survey and ground-penetrating radar (a remote sensing technique in which radar pulses directed into the ground reflect back to the surface when they strike features or interfaces within the ground, showing the presence and depth of possible buried features - expensive)
Chaco Canyon
in northwestern New Mexico, contains several massive pueblos that were occupied in the eleventh century; many smaller sites were revealed by surface survey, and a road system by remote sensing.
Chaco Roads
remote sensing showed that there existed a prehistoric road network. Used thermal infrared multispectral scanning - TIMS (a remote sensing technique that uses equipment mounted on aircraft or satellites to measure infrared thermal radiation given off by the ground. Sensitive to differences as small as 0.1 degree centigrade, it can locate subsurface structures by tracking how they affect surface thermal radiation). Hypothesis is that the roads facilitated movement of foods and goods. However it had a symbolic meaning, direction of roads had a meaning in their religion since the roads were not the most effective route for transportation.
Nabonidus
last king of Babylonian empire who was considered the "first archaeologist" since he excavated the empire which gave us our modern view on the Babylonian empire. He looked at physical residues of antiquity to answer questions about the past.
Belzoni
got to Egypt and had to transport Egyptian artifacts to Britain by using the nile river. Even though he damaged the artifacts, he kept a good record and took notes.
Pitt Rivers
developed typology (the arrangement of artifacts in chronological, developmental sequence), and used this for the tools he found, worked on careful excavation
Christian Thompson and Jens Worsaae
Jens Worsaae was volunteering for Christian Thompson. Thompson came up with three age system. Worsaae was the first archaeologist since he excavated to answer questions.Worsaae was the first archaeologist since he excavated to answer questions. He was the first to use stratigraphy to prove thomson's 3 age system
Boucher de Perthes
Found ancient axe heads so he said that ancient man existed. People didn't believe him because the date he dated them at contradicted the dates the bible and current scientists came up with.
Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis
both worked on the Moundbuilder mystery. They presented data on many sites, along with illustrations of artifacts, mound cross-sections, and maps of earthworks (first descriptive work). Said they were related to the "semi-civilized" nations of Mexico and Central America. Convinced people that they were not Indians.
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species the theory of evolution
Herbert Spencer
larger society means that they are more complex - "superorganism"
Myth of the Moundbuilders
at first people thought that they couldn't have been done by native americans because they weren't capable. but then thomas jefferson excavated and said it was a burial ground by native americans. there were many hypotheses then squier and davis pointed out differences between them, but said it should be from aztecs, no one believed. later it was solved by Cyrus Thomas.
Karl Marx
said that class conflict was the force for social change in society, many post-processualists took this view.
Lewis Henry Morgan
set the ladder of evolution, more up the ladder means more like the Europeans (hunter/gatherer -> agriculture -> writing -> civilization), ladder has flaws though because it assumes we all had the same amount of time to develop, no historical framework
Franz Boas
"father of American Anthropology"hm, set the legacy for American anthro - four field approach, (method, historical particularism, diffusion, anti-theoretical), each culture changes in a unique way
Alfred Kidder
He made archaeology shift towards anthropology. Moved from things to people. He used scientific procedures to understand culture, religion etc. He studied the Mayan Civilization.
Gertrude Caton-Thompson
While everyone was excavating tombs, she was the first to excavate settlements and reconstructed sequence of settlements and relationship to ancient lakes. She studied Egypt in dangerous situations (cobras and hyenas).
Leslie White
brought the evolutionism idea back, organized from simple to complex, set dimensions of culture (technology -> sociology -> ideaology -> sentiment), culture as a means of evolution, uni-lineal evolution. Has to move from (bands -> tribes -> chiefdoms -> states/empires, can't jump and skip one step).
Julian Steward
said cultural evolution not linear but multi-linear, invented cultural ecology
H. Marie Wormington
She faced many obstacles since she was a woman and people only took archaeology seriously coming from men. She wrote a book showing the shift from things to thinking from things.
David Hurst Thomas
found gatecliff shilter (see gatecliff)
Lewis Binford
developed new archaeology. He used cultural processes and used the scientific method (processual archaeology - 1960's arose), culture helps us adapt, archaeology as the study of processes of change in cultural adaptations.
Patty Jo Watson
created the model for the origins of agriculture. Women are the most aware with plants so they were aware of the potential of plant cultivation. Therefore, women were responsible for the Neolithic Revolution. But you can't test or prove this. (Post-processual movement)
Kathleen Deagan
brought archaeology to the public. Studied Spanish colonies in Florida
Ian Hodder
"Reading the Past" analyzing archaeology for symbolic meanings. (Post-processual movement).
Michelle Hegmon
came up with processual plus, helped in support of women rising in the field, said we should set theoretical egos aside
The scientific method
theory, models, hypothesis, test, conclusion, and repeat
Adaptive
a research perspective that emphasizes technology, ecology, demography, and economics in the definition of human behavior
Ideational perspectives
the research perspective that focuses on ideas, symbols, and mental structures as driving forces in shaping human behavior
Probabilistic
random, each sampling unit has certain probability of investigation. Stratified - region subdivided into different sub region types and each sampled with different intensity
Non-probabilistic Sampling
survey according to intuitive understanding of distributions, good for finding well known sites, but the problems are that there is uncontrolled bias
Classification
through typology, the classification of artifacts into types systematically
Remote sensing methods
the application of methods that employ some form of electromagnetic energy to detect and measure characteristics of an archaeological target
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
a computer program for storing, retrieving, analyzing, and displaying cartographic data
The archaeological "site" concept
a site can be divided up into different regions depending on the archaeologist. Some will divide by the type of tools they find, others by landmarks. Ecologists would do it by the type of rock found in the area.
Data
relevant observations made on objects that then serve as the basis for study and discussion
Low-level
the observations and interpretations that emerge from hangs-on archaeological field and lab work
Middle-level
hypothesis that links archaeological observations with the human behavior or natural processes that produced them
High-level theory
theory that sees to answer large "why" questions
Experimental archaeology
experiments designed to determine the archaeological correlates of ancient behavior; may overlap with both ethnoarchaeology and taphonomy.
Ethnoarchaeology
the study of contemporary peoples to determine how human behavior is translated into the archaeological record.
Settlement patterns
the distribution of archaeological sites across a region
Systematic
excavation at set intervals
random
excavation chosen at random intervals
stratified random samples
randomly chosen and excavated to different degrees of deepness
fullcoverage surveys
100% of the block is surveyed
Synchronic
a hypothetical reconstruction of the organization of a cultural system and its environmental context at a single point of time - ex past culture
Diachronic
a hypothetical description or explanation of change through time - ex cultural evolution
Landscape Archaeology
the study of ancient human modification of the environment
AD/BC/BP/CE/BCE
After death, before Christ, before present, common era, before common era
Artifact
any movable object that has been used, modified or manufactured by humans; artifacts include stone, bone and metal tools, beads ad other ornaments; pottery; artwork; religious and sacred items
Site
a place in which evidence of past activity is preserved and which has been or may be investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record. Can be divided up differently depending on the archaeologist.
Archaeology
the study of the past through systematic recovery and analysis of material remains
Ecofact
plant or animal remains found at an archaeological site
Feature
the non-portable evidence of technology, such as fire hearths, architectural elements, artifact clusters, garbage pits and soil stains.
Non-site archaeology
focuses not on the artifacts collected from a single site, but on the regional patterns in artifacts - patterns manifested on a scale of kilometers or hectares, rather than of patterns within a single site.
Social complexity
the extent to which a society is developed depends on whether they are an empire or a tribe.
Processual-Plus
empirical knowledge, a melding of post-processual interest in symbols and meaning with processual concerns regarding systematic generalizations. Also includes gender research, need to set theoretical egos aside
Historical Archaeology
the study of human behavior through material remains, in which written history in some way affects its interpretation.
Avocational Archaeologist
individuals who are interested in archaeology but have no academic credentials. Many collect artifacts on their own and are important sources of information for gumshoe survey. More exist than professional ones.
Stratigraphy
a site's physical structure produced by the deposition of geological and/or cultural sediments into layers or strata
Context
once artifacts enter the ground, they become part of the archaeological context, where they can continue to be affected y human action but are also affected by natural processes.
Space vs. Time
the delineation of patterns in material culture through time and over space. These patterns are what the archaeologist will eventually try to explain or account for.