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21 terms

US History II: Midterm Identification Review

These cards will help you identify and learn terms on the midterm identification section
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William Seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers. This was used by the New York World and New York Journal to stirr up animosity toward Spanish treatment of Cubans. This eventually led the United States public to support war with Spain.
Great White Fleet
Name for the steam-powered ships of the enlarged and modernized American Navy of the early 1900s, Navy force that circumnavigated the globe to show off US naval prowess. Designed and used by Teddy Roosevelt.
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt. Some of the most famous muckrakers were Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, and Upton Sinclair- who exposed the horrors of the meatpacking industry in Chicago.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
a fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Louis Brandeis
progressive lawyer nominated to Supreme Court by Wilson, known for his brilliance and for fighting many public causes, his work earned him the name "the people's lawyer", first Jewish Supreme Court nominee
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Lusitania
a British passenger ship carrying munitions and materiel that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned isolationist America's opinion against the Germans, helping the move the USA towards entering the war.
Franz Ferdinand
archduke of Austria Hungary who was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian terrorist Gavrilo Princip, a member of the group called the Black Hand; his death was a main cause for World War I.
Prohibition
a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933. Enforced by the Volstead Act, America was dry for the entire decade. Due to low enforcement and corruption of enforcement officers, the law was rarely enforced and violation was regular. Organized crime fueled booze to the public and the automobile made its reach tough to control. It was eventually repealed so it could be taxed and create jobs in the 1930's.
Charles Lindbergh
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean. He was one of the largest celebrities in American History.
Scopes Trial
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools. The verdict fined the teacher for breaking the law, but the case was made to address the issue of creationism v. evolution in schools and tied into the growing phenomena in the world of evolution and eugenics.
Bonus Army
Unemployed World War I veterans who came to Washington in the spring of 1932 to demand the immediate payment of the bonus congress had voted them in 1922. The veterans were forcibly removed from Pennsylvania Avenue by federal troops under the command of Douglas MacArthur. This event labeled Hoover as inhumane and cruel in the height of the Depression.
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. On this day years of problems inherent in the economy came to light as a massive sell off of stocks forced the entire economy to collapse. This has been labeled as the beginning of the Great Depression.
Fireside Chats
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression. He would explain to the public about banking and why his policies would be beneficial to recovery.
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages. This event devastated the food supply, while forcing many of the population of Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas to move west to the state of California.
Social Security
An act passed in 1935 gave government-payed pensions initially to American citizens over the age 65. Today it includes help for the unemployed, the disabled, and the needy. It is paid for by current workers and is essentially a pay as you go system.
Attack at Pearl Harbor
on Sunday 12/7/1941 at 7:55 A.M. the Japanesse attacked the vulnerable American miltary base here; there were many easy, open targets, and many people were caught by surprise; over 2,300 people died. 4 US battleships were sank. The premeditated attack was in retaliation for the US embargo of coal, oil, and steel. It was designed to sink the American fleet in a crushing blow that would allow Japan to gain time to defend a perimeter around a newly formed Pacific Empire.
Battle of the Bulge
Hitler's last offensive in Belgium in 1944. He wanted to gain access to Antwerp to launch rockets to hit Britain as well as to negotiate a peace with Britain. Allies forces defended this treacherous winter offensive by holding the town of Bastogne until Patton's army arrived to restore the line. The "bulge" created in the allied lines gives the battle its name. After this failed offensive, allied troops invaded Germany in March 1945.
Jimmy Doolittle
American pioneer in aviation, was an Army air force officer and conducted a raid on the Japanese home islands, which ended up being a huge propaganda victory to boost morale in America after Pearl Harbor. However, many airmen were lost, as they did not have enough fuel to return to the carriers.
Robert Oppenheimer
an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. Known as "the father of the atomic bomb," at the Trinity test.