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92 terms

Integumentary System

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epidermis
outermost layer of skin
keratin
horny, or cornified, layer composed of protein. It is contained in the hair, skin, and nails
melanin
responsible for skin color
dermis
inner layer of skin (also called the true skin)
sudoriferous (sweat) glands
tiny, coiled, tublular structures that emerge through pores on the skin's surface and secrete sweat
sebaceous glands
secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis
hair
composed of compressed, keratinized cells
nails
originate in the epidermis. The white area at the base of the nail is called the lunula, or moon
abrasion
scraping away of the skin by mechanical process or injury
abscess
localized collection of pus
acne
inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sebaceous glands and hair follicles
actinic keratosis
a precancerous skin condition of horny tissue formation that results from excessive exposure to sunlight. It may evolve into a squamous cell carcinoma.
albinism
congenital hereditary condition characterized by partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
basal cell carcinoma (BBC)
epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis. It seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue. Common in individuals who have had excessive sun exposure.
candidiasis
an infection of the skin, mouth (also called thrush), or vagina caused by the yeast-type fungus Candida albicans
carbuncle
skin infection composed of a cluster of boils caused by staphylococcal bacteria
cellulitis
inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by infection, leading to redness, swelling, and fever
contusion
injury with no break in the skin, characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration (also called a bruise)
eczema
noninfectious, inflammatory skin disease characterized by redness, blisters, scabs, and itching
fissure
slit or cracklike sore in the skin
furuncle
painful skin node caused by staphylococcal bacteria in a hair follicle (also called a boil)
gangrene
death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion (a form of necrosis)
herpes
inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus characterized by small blisters in clusters
impetigo
superficial skin infection caused by pustules and caused by either staphylococci or streptococci
infection
the invasion of pathogens in body tissue. Can be caused by bacteria, fungus, parasite, or virus
Kaposi sarcoma
a cancerous condition starting as purple or brown papules on the lower extremities that spreads through the skin to the lymph nodes and internal organs. Frequently seen with AIDS
laceration
torn, ragged-edged wound
lesion
any visible change in tissue resulting from injury or disease. It is a broad term that includes sores, wounds, ulcers, and tumors
MRSA infection
invasion of body tissue by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a strain of common bacteria that has developed resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics. It can produce skin and soft tissue infections and sometimes bloodstream infections and pneumonia, which can be fatal if not treated
pediculosis
invasion into the skin and hair by lice
psoriasis
chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales
rosacea
chronic disorder of the skin that produces erythema, papules, pustules, and broken blood vessels, usually occurring on the central area of the face in people older than 30 years (also called acne rosacea)
scabies
skin infection caused by the itch mite, characterized by papule eruptions also accompanied by severe itching
scleroderma
a disease characterized by chronic hardening (induration) of the connective tissue of the skin and other body organs
squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCA)
a malignant growth that develops from scalelike epithelial tissue. Unlike basal cell carcinoma, there is a significant potential for metastasis. The most frequent cause is chronic exposure to sunlight
systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE)
a chronic inflammatory disease involving the skin joints, kidneys, and nervous system. This autoimmune disease is characterized by periods of remission and exacerbations. It also may affect other organs
tinea
fungal infection of the skin. The fungi may infect keratin of the skin, hair, and nails. (also known as ringworm or athlete's foot)
urticaria
an itching eruption composed of wheals of varying size and shape, which usually resolves in a short period of time. Often idiopathic but sometimes associated with infections and with allergic reactions to food, medicine, or other agents. Other causes include internal disease, physical stimuli, and genetic disorders (also called hives)
vitiligo
white patches on the skin caused by the destruction of melanocytes associated with autoimmune disorders
cauterization
destruction of tissue with a hot or cold instrument, electric current, or caustic substance (also called cautery)
cryosurgery
destruction of tissue by using extreme cold, often by using liquid nitrogen
debridement
removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound
dermabrasion
procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material, such as sandpaper
excision
removal by cutting
incision
surgical cut or wound produced by a sharp instrument
incision and drainage
surgical cut made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from lesion, wound, or cavity
laser surgery
procedure using an instrument that emits a high-powered beam of light used to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissue
Mohs surgery
technique of microscopically controlled serial excisions of skin cancers
suturing
to stitch edges of a wound surgically
alopecia
loss of hair
bacteria (s. bacterium)
single-celled microorganisms that reproduce by cell division and may cause infection by invading body tissue
cicatrix
scar
cyst
a closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material
cytomegalovirus
a herpes-type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised
diaphoresis
profuse sweating
ecchymosis (pl. ecchymoses)
escape of blood into the skin (or mucous membrane), causing a small, flat, purple, or blue discoloration, as may occur when blood is withdrawn by a needle and syringe from an arm vein
edema
puffy swelling of tissue from the accumulation of fluid
erythema
redness
fungus (pl. fungi)
organism that feeds by absorbing organic molecules from its surroundings and may cause infection by invading body tissue; single-celled fungi (yeast) reproduce by budding; multicelled fungi (mold) reproduce by spore formation
induration
abnormal hard spot(s)
jaundice
condition characterized by a yellow tinge to the skin (also called xanthoderma)
keloid
overgrowth of scar tissue
leukoplakia
condition characterized by white spots or patches on mucous membrane which may be precancerous
macule
flat, colored spot on the skin
nevus
circumscribed malformation of the skin, usually brown, black, or flesh colored. A congenital nevus is present at birth and is referred to as a birthmark (also called a mole)
nodule
a small, knotlike mass that can be felt by touch
pallor
paleness
papule
small, solid skin elevation
petechia (pl. petechiae)
a pinpoint skin hemorrhage
pressure ulcer (decub)
erosion of the skin caused by prolonged pressure, often occurring in bedridden patients (also called decubitus ulcer or bed sore)
pruritus
severe itching
purpura
small hemorrhages in the skin (or mucous membrane), giving a purple-red discoloration; associated with blood disorders or vascular abnormalities
pustule
elevation of the skin containing pus
ulcer
erosion of the skin or mucous membrane
verruca
circumscribed cutaneous elevation caused by a virus (also called a wart)
vesicle
small elevation of the epidermis containing liquid (also called a blister)
virus
minute microorganism, much smaller than bacterium, characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the ability to replicate only within living host cells; may cause infection by invading body tissue
wheal
transitory, itchy elevation of the skin with a white center and a red surrounding area; a wheal is an individual urticaria (hive) lesion
BCC
basal cell carcinoma
bx
biopsy
CMV
cytomegalovirus
CA-MRSA
community-associate MRSA
decub
pressure ulcer
derm
dermatology
HA-MRSA
healthcare-associated MRSA
I&D
intradermal
MRSA
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus
SqCCA
squamous cell carcinoma
staph
staphylococcus
subcut
subcutaneous
TD
transdermal