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Chapter 5: Fats, Oils, and Other Lipids (1)
Terms in this set (53)
A category of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen compounds that are insoluble. They are fats. Include foods like butter, mayonnaise, the cholesterol in meats and eggs, and even the fatty tissues in your own body. It is hydrophobic
Having an aversion to water
What fats provide
In cooking they give the flaky texture on pie crusts and other baked goods, make meat tender, and soups and puddings creamy. They provide the aromas for foods such as fried chicken or baked cookies. In your body, fats are essential for energy storage and insulation.
Types of fats found in food and your body
Triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols
The basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids. 20 different types. Made of a chain of hydrogen and carbon atoms. The difference between them is determined by: 1. the lengths of the chain 2. whether the carbons have single or double bond between them 3. the total number of double bond
Saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid that has all of its carbons bound with hydrogen. ex. stearic acid which are in cocoa butter and meat.
Fats that contain mostly saturated fatty acids. Should be minimized in diet.
Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)
A fatty acid that has one double bond.
Unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between them
Fats that contain mostly unsaturated fatty acids. Are better for your health than foods high in saturated fat, cholesterol, and/or trans fat.. Found in vegetable oils, soybeans, walnuts, peanut butter, flax seeds. and wheat germ.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
A fatty acid with two or more double bonds
Essential fatty acid
The two polyunsaturated fatty acids that the body cannot make and therefore must be eaten in foods: linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic
A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega-6 fatty acid family
A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega-3 fatty acid family
The three-carbon backbone of a triglyceride
Lipids that are liquid at room temperature
Lipids made up of two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol backbone.
Three fatty acids that are attached to a glycerol backbone. Also known as fat. Most common lipid found in foods and in your body.
A glycerol with only one attached fatty acid. What fat is broken down into in the small intestine
A secretion that's squirted into the small intestine to emulsify fat into smaller globules, which allows enzymes o break the fat down. Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
Small transport carries in the intestine that enable fatty acids and other compounds to be absorbed
Watery fluid that circulates through the body in lymph vessels and eventually enters the blood. Long chain fatty acids enter the lymph while small chain fatty acids enter the bloodstream and go directly into the liver.
Capsule-shaped transport carriers that enable fat and cholesterol to travel through the lymph and blood
A type of lipoprotein that carries digested fat and other lipids through the lymph systems into the blood.
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)
A lipoprotein that delivers fat made in the liver to the tissues. VLDL remnants are converted into LDLs.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
A lipoprotein that deposits cholesterol in the walls of the arteries. Because this can lead to heart disease, LDL is referred to as the bad cholesterol carrier.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
A lipoprotein that removes cholesterol from the tissue and delivers it to the liver to be used as part of bile and/or to be excreted from the body. Because of this, it is known as the good cholesterol carriers.
Purpose of fat
Fat is an important source of energy and helps absorb some compounds. Fat also insulates your body and cushions your major organs. Different fats though can have different affects on your heart.
Fat is used as
Energy. Fat is 9 calories per gram and is a major source of fuel. Your body has an unlimited ability to store excess energy (calories) as fat.
Certain Fatty Acids Keep Cells Healthy
linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic acids (omega-3 fatty acid) are essential, which means your body can't make them. They help maintain healthy skin cells, nerves, and cell membranes.You need to consume a minimum of 5 percent to up to 10 percent of the total recommended calories
Hormone-like substances in the body. Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes are all eicosanoids
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Two omega-3 fatty acids that are heart healthy. Fatty fish such as salmon are good sources. Reduce risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. All fish contain EPA and DHA.
Roles of Cholesterol
Needed in cell membranes and as the precursor for vitamin D and bile acids. Cholesterol can be either good or ba
How Much Fat Do You Need Each Day?
AMDR recommends that 20 to 25 percent of your daily calories should come from fat.
Adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid to make it more saturated and solid at room temperature
Trans Fatty Acids
Substances that result from the hydrogenating of an unsaturated fatty acid, causing a reconfiguring of some of its double bonds. A small amount of trans fatty acids occurs naturally in animal food
Substance that contains mostly trans fatty acids. Originally used to provide a richer texture and longer shelf life
The decomposition or spoiling, of fats through oxidation
Very unhealthy. Found like butter, chicken fat, cream, coconut oil, palm kernel, grain-baked desserts, pizza, full-fat cheese, sausages, and franks.
Your body can make all the cholesterol it needs, therefore you do not need to consume it in your diet, you should limit it. Choose mono- and polyunsaturated fats over saturated fats when possible. Don't add trans fats to your diet.
Substances that replace added fat in foods by providing the creamy properties of fat for fewer calories and fewer total fat gram.
Where can fat substitutes be found
1. Carbohydrate-based substitutes 2. Protein-based substitutes 3. Fat-based substitutes
Eating Fat-Free Products
Just because something is fat-free doesn't mean it is calorie free. Many people over eat fat-free products because they think it is good for them, but it is only causing more harm. Eating fat-free products is not a blank check to eat as much as you want. Overconsuming calories can lead to weight gain.
Permanent damage to the heart muscle that results from a sudden lack of oxygen-rich blood due to blockage of fats and cholesterol
A condition caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain that could result in paralysis and possible death
Narrowing of the coronary arteries due to buildup of debris along the artery walls
The hardened build up of cholesterol-laden foam cells, platelets, cellular waste products, and calcium in the arteries that result in atherosclerosis
Risk Factors for Heart Disease
1. Risks you can't control: blood cholesterol levels increase with age, high cholesterol levels can be genetic and run through your family 2. Risk factors you can control: controlling diabetes, maintain healthy blood pressure, smoking, regular exercise, losing excess weight 3. Emerging risk factors: high level of amino cof homocysteine, high level of protein called C-reactive protein, lipid-protein compound Lp(a), apolipoprotein B
Normal Blood Pressure
Systolic pressure is the top number and is the pressure within your arteries when your heart contracts. The bottom number, diastolic pressure, is the pressure in your arteries a moment later, when your heart is relaxed. Normal blood pressure is less than 120 mm Hg (systolic-the top number) and less than 80 mm Hg (diastolic-the bottom number). Referred to as 120/80.
High blood pressure. A reading 140/90 or higher
Naturally occurring sterols found in plants. Phytosterols lower LDL cholesterol levels by competing with cholesterol fro absorption in the intestinal tact.
Help decrease levels of LDL cholesterol by intercepting them once they are created or helping to repair any injury to cells due to these substances. Load up on these foods.
Phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, tea, nuts, and seeds
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