8th Social Studies Chapter 4 Life in the American Colonies Lesson 1 Colonial Economy
Terms in this set (39)
Producing just enough to meet immediate needs.
a crop that can be sold easily in markets.
Variety, such as of ethnic or national groups.
Trade route between three destinations, Britian, Africa, and America
Rules focusing on the behavior and punishment of enslaved people
Why did New England farmers practice subsistence farming?
New England farmers practiced subsistence farming because the soil was poor and rocky. This made large scale farming difficult for the colonists. They produced enough crops to feed their families.
What types of jobs did the New England farmers do on their farms?
Milking cows, planting crops, and harvesting (picking) crops.
What did the New England women do on their farms?
Made cloth, candles, and soap.
What type of businesses did New England have?
Mills for grinding grain and sawing lumber, Blacksmiths, shoemakers, and printers.
What industry was important in New England?
What was an important link between people and places from New England to around the world?
Ships and trade were important.
What other important industries could be found in New England?
Fishing and Whaling. Whales were hunted for their oil and whalebone.
How did farms in the Middle Colonies differ from those in the New England Colonies?
The soil and climate in the middle colonies was very good for farming. The soil was richer and the climate milder. Farmers were able to plant larger areas and produce more crops.
What did farmers in New York and Pennsylvania grow?
Farmers from New York and Pennsylvania grew large amounts of wheat and other cash crops.
What makes a crop into a cash crop?
A cash crop can be easily sold at the market or overseas.
Where did farmers send their wheat and livestock (like pigs and sheep)?
They sent their wheat and livestock to New York and Philadelphia. These cities became busy ports.
What industries did the Middle Colonies have?
Some industries were carpentry and flour making. Other larger businesses were like lumber (wood) mills and mining.
What type of settlers came to the Middle Colonies?
German, Dutch, Swedish, and other non-English settlers came to the Middle Colonies.
What is cultural diversity?
Variety and different ways of doing things like farming, cooking, religion, etc.
How were plantations in the Southern Colonies different from small farms?
Plantations in the Southern Colonies were large and produced large cash crops. Plantations were often located along rivers. Small farms grew corn and tobacco. There were more small farms than plantations, but the plantation owners had more money and more power.
Why was agriculture so important to the economy of the Southern Colonies?
Plantation owners became very powerful. They became rich from selling tobacco, wheat, corn, and even rice. They controlled the economy and the politics in the Southern Colonies.
What was the main cash crop in South Carolina and Georgia?
Rice growers in the Southern colonies used ________ __________ to harvest rice.
Who had slaves to sell to the plantation owners?
The West African Slave Traders
Give examples of how Africans might have become slaves?
Some Africans were taken from their villages by force. Others were captured in wars.
Where did the slave traders begin shipping the enslaved people?
They began to ship them to America.
What became a very important part of the colonial economy?
Slavery and the slave trade.
What happened to enslaved people once they were caught?
They were marched to a fort on the West African Coast, they were traded to Europeans, branded, and forced onto a ship.
What was the trip across the ocean from West Africa to the Americas called?
The Middle Passage
Why was it called the Middle Passage?
It was called the Middle Passage because it was the second, or middle, part of the 3 sided trade route.
What was the triangular trade route?
It was a trade route between Europe to West Africa to buy or trade slaves, then from West Africa to America to sell or trade the enslaved Africans, then the ships returned to Europe filled with trade goods.
Why did many Africans die during the Middle Passage?
They died because the conditions on the ships was terrible. They were chained together, they had little food and water, if they got sick or died, they were thrown into the sea. If they refused to eat, the slave traders whipped them.
Once the enslaved Africans arrived in the Americas, what happened to them?
They were sold at slave markets and taken to work as laborers and some as servants in homes of the plantation owners.
What kind of life did the slaves live?
They lived hard lives. Most of the slaves worked in the fields. They were often treated cruelly.
What was a slave code?
The slave code were rules that controlled the behavior and punishment of enslaved people. The rules were usually very strict, and the punishments were very harsh.
How did the plantation owners try to break up the strong family ties that the slaves had.
They often split up the families by selling the husband, wife, parent, or child to another slave owner.
What did some enslaved Africans learn to do and what could they possibly obtain
Some enslaved Africans learned to be carpenters, blacksmiths, and weavers. Sometimes- with permission- they set up shops. They shared the money with the slave owner. At times, they could earn enough money to buy his or her freedom.
Who did not like slavery in the colonies and did not believe that one human had the right to own another.
Quakers, Puritans, and Mennonites.
What would be the result of the question of slavery between the North and South