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grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources

ancillary activities

economic activities that surround and support largescale industires such as shipping and food service


human-centered; in sustainable development, reffering to ideas that focuz solely on the needs of people without considering the creatures with whom we share the planet or the ecosystem upon which we depend

backwash effect

the negative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region

brick-and-mortar business

traditional businesses with actual stores in which trade or retail occurs; it does NOT exist solely on the internet

conglomerate corporation

a firm that is comprised of many smaller firms that serve several different functions


national or global regions where economic power, in terms of wealth, innovation, and advanced technology, is concentrated

core-periphery model

a model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region


the dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration


loss of the industrial activity in a region


the process of economic growth, expansion, or realization of regional resource potential


web-based economic activities

economic backwaters

regions that fail to gain from national economic development

export-processing zone

areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries

fast world

areas of the world, usually the economic core, that experience greater levels of connection due to high-speed telecommunications and transportation technologies

footloose firms

manufacuturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining the location of the firm


system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford

foreign investment

overseas business investments made by private companies

gender equity

a measure of the opportunities given to women compared to men within a given country


the idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that the smaller scales of political and economic life are becoming obsolete

gross domestic product

the total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year

gross national product

the total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year

human development index

measure used by the united nations that calculates development not in terms of money or productivity but in terms of human welfare. the HDI evaluates human welfare based on three parameters: life expectancy, education, and income

industrial revolution

the rapid economic and social changes in the manufacturing that resulted after the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry in England at the end of the 18th century


process of industrial development in which countries evolve economically, from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-porducing goods. at the highest levels of development, national economies are geared mainly toward the delivery of services and exchange of information

industrialized countries

those countries including Britain, France, the US, Russia, Germany, and Japan, there were all the forefront of industrial production and innovation through the middle of the 20th century. while industry is currently shifting to other countries to take advantage of cheaper labor and more relaxed evironmental standards, these countries still account for a large portion of the world's total industrial output

least-cost theory

a concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration

least-developed countries

those countries including countries in Africa, except for South Africa, and parts of South America and Asia, that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living

manufacturing region

a region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. the major US industrial region has historically been in the Great Lakes, which includes the staes of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. industrial regions also exist in southeastern Brazil, central England, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere


those US firms that have facotires just outside the US/Mexican border in areas that have been specially desiganated by the Mexican government. in such areas, facotires cheaply assemble goods for export back into the US

net national product

a measure of all goods and services produced by a country in a year, including production from its investments abroad, MINUS the loss or degradation of natural resource capital as a result of productivity

offshore financial center

areas that have been specially designed to promote business transactions, and thus have become centers for banking and finance


countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and gernerally low standards of living. includes Africa (cept for south), parts of Soth America, and Asia

primary economic activities

economic activities in which natural resources are made available for use or further processing, including mining, agriculture, forestry, and fishing


a measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country

purchasing power parity

a monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries

quaternary economic activities

economic activities concerned with research, information gathering, and administration


the process by which specific regions acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others within the same country. in economic geography, this involves the development of dominant economic activities in particular regions

rostow's stages of development

a model of economic development that describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed to most-developed countries

rust belt

the manufacturing region in the US that is currently debilitated because many manufacturing firms have relocated to countries offering cheaper labor and relaxed environmental regulations

secondary economic activities

economic activities concerned with the processing of raw materials such as manufacturing, construction, and power generation


those newly industrialized countries with median standards of living, such as Chile, Brazil, India, China, and Indonesia. these countries offer their citizens relatively diverse economic opportunities but also have extreme gaps between rich and poor

service-based economies

highly developed economies that focus on research and development, marketing, tourism, sales, and telecommunications

slow world

the developing world that does not experience the benefits of high-speed telecommunications and transportation technology

spatially fixed costs

an input cost in manufacturing that remains constant whereever production is located

spatially variable costs

an input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its total amount and in its relative share of total costs

specialty goods

goods that are not mass-produced but rather assembled individually or in small quantities

sustainable development

the idea that ppl living today should b able to meet their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same

tertiary economic activities

activites that provide the market exchange of goods and that bring together consumers and providers of servies such as retail, transportation, government, personal, and professional services

transnational corporation

a firm that conducts business in at least 2 separate countries; aka multinational corporations

world cities

a group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finace and commerce

world-systems theory

theory developed by Immanuel Wallerstein that explains the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi-periphery in terms of economic and political connections first established at the beginning of exploration in the late 15th century and maintained through increased economic access up until the present

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