geography; its nature and prespectives

terms and definitions
Changing Attributes of a place (Built Landscape)
an area of land represented by its features and patterns of human occupation and use of natural resources
Changing Attributes of a place (Sequent occupance)
The succeeding stages of human inhabitation over time on one site. Each stage is seen as being established by its predecessor, although the sequence will almost certainly be interrupted by outside forces
Cultural Attributes (Cultural landscape)
Provides a sense of place and identity; they map our relationship with the land over time; and they are part of our national heritage and each of our lives.
Density (arithmetric)
the total number of people divided by the total land area
Density (physiological)
Describes how often an object occurs within a given area or space
Diffusion (Hearth)
Idea or innovation that spreads outward
Diffusion (Relocation)
The spread of an idea through the physical movement of people from one place to another, such as the spread of Amish communities through the United States.
Diffusion (expansion)
The spread of innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
Diffusion (Hierarchical)
The spread of ideas from a small hearth to a big civilization. ( or reversed)
Diffusion (Contagious)
The spread of ideas across a lot of people really fast, like a disease.
Diffusion (Stimulus)
The spread of ideas with something stimulating the spread.
Direction (absolute)
North, East, South, West
Direction (Relative)
The direction of flow, can apply to diffusion. [path, route, track]
Dispersion and Concentration (Dispersed/Scattered)
If objects in an area are relatively far apart
Dispersion and Concentration (Clustered/ Agglomerated)
If the objects in an area are close together
Distance (relative)
socially constructed
Distance (absolute)
measured by miles
the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume
Environmental determinism
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
Location (Absolute)
Is the exact spot where something is on the earth represented by longitude and latitude or a street address.
Location (relative)
How one place is connected to another by direction, time, distance and landmark.
Location (site)
a physical character of a place, such as characteristics like climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation
Location (situation)
The location of a place relative to other places; valuable to indicate location: finding an unfamiliar place and understanding its importance by comparing location with familiar one and learning their accessibility to other places
Location (Place name)
the name of a geographical location, such as a town
Pattern (Linear)
straight pattern, ex. houses along a street
Pattern (Centralized)
clustered or concentrated at a certain place
Pattern (random)
a pattern with no specific order or logic behind its arrangement
Physical Attributes (Natural landscape)
unaffected by human activity
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Region (formal/uniform)
A Region marked by relative uniformity of characteristics; congressional districts are uniform regions.
Region (functional/nodal)
A region defined by a social or economic function that occurs between the node or focal point and the surrounding areas.
Region (perceptual/vernacular)
It is an area that exists in the minds of a society, for example the American "South"
Scale (implied degree of generalization)
the size of an area student, from local to global.
the physical magnitude of something (how big it is)
Of or pertaining to space on the earths surface
Spatial Interaction (accessibility)
the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations.
Spatial Interaction (connectivity)
the directness of routes linking pairs of places; an indication of the degree of internal connection in a transport network; all of the tangible and intangible means of connection and communication between places.
Spatial Interaction (network)
the areal pattern of sets of places and the routes (links) connecting them along which movement can take place.
Spatial Interaction (distance decay)
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Spatial Interaction (friction of distance)
a measure of the retarding or restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction; the greater the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction or exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.
Spatial Interaction (time-space compression)
an influence on the rate of expansion diffusion of an idea, observing that the spread or acceptance of an idea is usually delayed as distance from the source of the innovation increases.
a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map
Geographic Information system
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data
Global Positioning system
a navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver
Grid (north and south poles)
the very top and bottom of the earth where all the latitude lines meet
Grid (latitude)
vertical lines running along the earth to measure distance and time
Grid (parallel)
lines equally spaced from each other
Grid (equator)
the very center of the earth where the longitude line is the longest
an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator
an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator
prime meridian
meridian at zero degree longitude from which east and west are reckoned (usually the Greenwich longitude in England)
international date line
an imaginary line on the surface of the earth following (approximately) the 180th meridian
The tool most uniquely identified with geography
Map scale
distance on map relative to distance on earth
relating to or constituting a topic of discourse
of or relating to statistics
map in which some thematic mapping variable is substituted for land area (e.g., GDP)
dot map
maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon such as population
thematic map in which areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of the statistical variable being displayed (e.g., population density)
map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
mental map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
a prediction made by extrapolating from past observations
time zones
the 24 zones of different time into which the Earth is divided
remote sensing
the acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods