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Week 3&4: Psychoanalytic & Alderian Therapy
Terms in this set (138)
- Father of psychoanalysis
- His views continue to influence contemporary practice
- He experienced a number of severe emotional problems of his own and engaged in self-analysis
- Freud's psychoanalysis was the original psychodynamic theory, but the psychodynamic approach as a whole includes all theories that were based on his ideas→ Jung, Alder and Erikson
- Freud's theories were considered psychoanalytic, whereas the term psychodynamic refers to both his theories and those of his followers.
- Freud's psychoanalysis is both a theory and a therapy.
view of human nature- psychoanalytic
- The Freudian view of human nature is basically deterministic→ our behaviors are determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations and biological and instinctual drive.
- Instincts are central to the Freudian approach.
- Libido→ originally refers to sexual energy but he later broadened it to include the energy of all the life instincts.
- These instincts serve the purpose of the survival of the individual and the human race→ they oriented toward growth, development and creativity
- Libido should be seen as a source of motivation that encompasses sexual energy but goes beyond it.
- Freud sees the goal of life as gaining pleasure and avoiding pain.
- Death instincts: account for the aggressive drive.
- Freud's view was that both sexual and aggressive drives are powerful determinants of why people act as they do.
structure of personality
- Personality consists of three systems: ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO
- From the orthodox Freudian perspective- humans are viewed as energy systems.
- The dynamics of personality consist of the ways in which psychic energy is distributed to the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO.
- Because the amount of energy is limited, one systems gains control over the available energy at the expense of the other two systems→ behavior is determined by this psychic energy.
• Untamed drives or impulses that might be likened to the biological component
• Operates by the pleasure principle- aimed at reducing tension, avoiding pain, and gaining pleasure
• The ID is illogical, amoral, and drive to satisfy instinctual needs.
• The ID is the original system of personality- at birth a person is all ID
• It is the primary source of psychic energy and the seat of instincts.
• It lacks organization and is blind, demanding and insistent.
• It never matures
• It is largely unconscious
• Attempts to organize and mediate between the ID and dangers posed by the ID's impulses.
• Actions of the ego may or may not be conscious
• Delays immediate gratification
• Operates by the reality principle- the EGO does realistic and logical thinking and formulates plans of action for satisfying needs.
• It controls the blind impulses of the ID
• The EGO is the executive that regulates the personality.
• We can protect ourselves from the dangerous of our own drives by establishing a superego, which is the internalized social component.
• Operates by the moral principle
• Judicial: moral code, represents the ideal, strives for perfection.
• It functions to inhibit the ID impulses and to persuade the ego to substitute moralistic goals for realistic ones, and to strive for perfection.
• It is the internalization of the standards of parents and society is related to the psychological rewards and punishments (punishment= guilt/inferiority rewards= pride/self-love ).
what are the 5 psychosexual stages of development
what stages of psychosexual development are most important
The first three stages of psychosexual development are all grounded at what stage of life?
in the first 6 years of life
Classical psychoanalysis is grounded on ______ psychology. Whereas, contemporary psychoanalysis is based on _____psychology.
- It is a model of personality development
- It is a subset of psychodynamic theory.
- It is a model that calls attention to psychodynamic processes that motivate behavior (such as the role of the unconscious) and developing our understanding of the structure of one's basic character.
- Freud was fairly rigid with his theories→ he had very little tolerance for colleagues who diverged from his psychoanalytic doctrines
- Jung and Adler worked closely with Freud but each founded their own therapeutic orientation after repeated conflict with Freud→ they extended Freud's theories.
- Feeling of dread that results from repressed feelings, memories, desires and experience that emerges to the surface of our awareness
- Function: warning of impending danger
- Develops out of conflict between the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO for control over the psychic energy
- When ego cannot control anxiety it relies on indirect methods→ ego-defense behavior
ego defence mechanisms
- They are normal behaviors, which operate on an unconscious level and tend to deny or distort reality.
- They help the individual to cope with anxiety and prevent the ego from being overwhelmed.
- Most common is denial
- They have an adaptive value only if they do not become a style of life to avoid facing reality.
therapeutic goals- psychoanalytic
- Overall aim: to increase adaptive functioning, which involves the reduction of symptoms and the resolution of conflicts.
- Two goals of psychoanalytical therapy are to make the unconscious conscious and to strengthen the ego so that behavior is based more on reality and less on instinctual cravings or irrational guilt.
- Psychoanalytic therapy is oriented toward achieving insight.
therapists function - psychoanalytic
- Analyst typically assumes an anonymous stance→ sometimes called the black-screen approach.
- They engage in very little disclosure and maintain a sense of neutrality to foster a transference relationship→ client makes projections onto them.
- These projections, which have their origins in unfinished and repressed situations, are considered grist for the mill and their analysis is the very essence of therapeutic work.
- One of the central functions is to help clients acquire the freedom to love, work and play, achieving self-awareness, honesty, dealing with anxiety, gaining control over impulsive and irrational behavior etc.
- They make appropriate interpretations→ this accelerates the process of uncovering unconscious material
- Analysts help clients to achieve insight into their problems, increase their awareness of ways to change, and thus gain more control over their lives
clients experience in therapy - psychoanalytic
- Client is free to express anything that comes to mind without self-censorship → free-association. This process is known as the fundamental rule.
- Clients report their feelings, experiences, memories and fantasies lying on a couch→ encourages deep, uncensored reflections and reduces the stimuli that might interfere also reduces their ability to read their analysts face for reactions.
- The analyst remains non-judgmental.
relationship between therapist and client- psychoanalytic
- The classical analyst stands outside the relationship, comments on it, and offers insight-producing interpretations.
- A significance aspect of the therapeutic relationship is manifested through transference reactions.
- If therapy is to produce change, the transference relationship must be worked through
techniques used - psychoanalytic
- Techniques are aimed at increasing awareness, fostering insights, and understanding the meanings of symptoms.
maintaining the analytic framework
- The analyst's relative anonymity, the regularity and consistency of meetings
analysis of resistance
- Analyst helps clients become aware of the reasons for their resistance so that they can deal with them
- Resistance is anything that works again the progress of therapy and prevents the client from producing previously unconscious material.
analysis of transference
- Therapist uses this technique as a route to elucidating the client's intrapsychic life
- Transference: client's unconscious shifting to the analyst feelings and fantasies that are reactions to significant others in the client.
- Unconscious repetition of the past in the present.
- It allows clients to achieve here-and-now insight into the influence of the past on their present functioning.
- Allows them to work through old conflicts that are keeping them fixated and retarding their emotional growth.
- Counter-transference: therapist's reactions to the client- can project distortions onto the client.
- Client reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts
- Therapist points out, explains and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed
- Therapist uses the 'royal road to the unconscious' to bring unconscious material to light.
- During sleep, defenses are lowered and repressed feelings surface.
- Dreams have two levels of content: latent content and manifest content.
- Latent content: consists of hidden, symbolic and unconscious motives, wishes and fears.
- Manifest content: the dream as it appears to the dreamer (latent content is so painful they are transformed into the more acceptable manifest content)
group counselling - psychoanalytic
- Group work provides a rich framework for working through transference feelings
- The group becomes a microcosm of members' everyday lives
- Projections onto the leader and members are valuable clues to unresolved conflicts within the person that can be identified and worked through in the group.
- A Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded Analytical Psychology.
- Trained Jungian Therapists are called Analytical Psychologists.
- He proposed and developed the concepts of extraversion and introversion; archetypes and the collective unconscious, which are the unconscious aspects we share with others (archetypes are an example of this).
Jung' analytic psychology- main goal in life
- Interested in personal and collective unconscious
- Places central importance on psychological changes associated with midlife.
- Achieving individuation- the harmonious integration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality- is an innate and primary goal
- To become integrated, it is essential to accept our dark side, or shadow.
- Dreams are aimed at integration and resolution; they contain messages from deepest layer of the unconscious, the collective unconscious- the source of creativity
principle of entantiodromia
tension of opposites
jung and dream analysis + techniques
- Dream analysis: dreams are an attempt to express, rather than an attempt to repress and disguise, they contain messages from the collective unconscious.
- Jung believed dreams serve a prospective function- symbolic of what's needed for further growth/balance- and a compensatory function- working to bring about a balance between opposites
o Synchronicity: A meaningful coincidence of 2 or more events, where something other than probability of chance is involved.
o Active imagination: a conscious dialogue with unconscious material
o Amplification: make louder until meaning resonates or clicks- personal amplification, cultural amplification, and archetypal amplification.
contemporary psychodynamic therapy
- Neo-Freudian school moved away from the orthodox position and incorporated cultural and social influences on personality.
brief psychodynamic therapy
contributions of classical analysis
- Helps analysts understand:
o Human behavior from a psychosexual perspective.
o Unfinished business can be worked through to provide a new ending to events that have restricted clients emotionally.
o The value of concepts such as unconscious motivation, the influence of early development, transference, countertransference and resistance.
o How the overuse of ego defenses keep clients from functioning effectively
strengths of psychoanalysis from a multicultural perspective
o Techniques can be modified to suit the setting, can help client to review environmental settings
o Analysts aware of their own biases
o Erikson's psychosocial approach has particular application to people of color
shortcomings of psychoanalysis from a multicultural perspective
o Based on upper/middle class values
o Ambiguity- some cultures like a direct approach
o Doesn't adequately address social, cultural, and political factors
o Not good for low SES- too long, doesn't deal with immediate pressing issues
limitations of classical analysis
- May not be appropriate for all cultures or socioeconomic groups
- Deterministic focus does not emphasize current maladaptive behaviors
- Minimizes role of the environment
- Requires subjective interpretation by the analyst
- Relies heavily client fantasy
- Not all clients are suited to psycho-analytic therapy- requires a reasonable degree of self-insight
- Lengthy treatment- often 7-10 years of weekly sessions may not be practical or affordable for many people
view of human nature- Alderian
- In contrast to Freud, humans are primarily motivated by social relatedness rather than sexual urges, behavior is purposeful and goal directed and consciousness, rather than unconsciousness.
- At around 6 years of age our fictional vision of ourselves as perfect or complete begins to form into a life goal
- The life goal unifies the personality and becomes the source of human motivation.
- Genetics and heredity not as important as what we choose to do with the abilities and limitations we possess; however acknowledged that biological and environmental conditions do limit our capacity to create and choose.
- The influence of birth order has long intrigued psychologists- Alder was the first to formally rise the issue in the early 1990s
- He called it the family constellation.
o Emphasizes birth order as an important factor in the formation of our personalities
o Even more important than the role of parents
o Adler would say the interpretation of the events are more important than the vents themselves
o These impressions are formed early and stay with us throughout our adult life- can inform us of our current struggles
- Increase an individual's probability of having a certain set of experiences
- Get a great deal of attention
- Ousted from favored position with birth of new baby sibling
- Reasserts his/her rightful place on the throne by being a model child, bossing younger siblings, being high achieving or at least exhibiting achievement oriented drive
second child of only two
- From time of birth must share the attention with the older child
- Typically behaves as if in a race, generally full steam ahead at all times (training to surpass the older sibling)
- Competitive struggle influences their later course of life
- Younger child can expose weak points of older child, and achieves success where the older child has not
- Often opposite to the first born ("chalk and cheese")
- Often feels squeezed out
- Can become convinced of the unfairness of life and feel cheated
- Can become a problem child and have poor me attitude
- Can become the mediator/peacemaker who holds family together
- If a family of 4 the second born may feel like the middle
- Always the baby of the family
- Tends to be most pampered one
- May develop helplessness as an art form
- Expert of having others at their service
- Tend to be very sociable and independent and may develop in ways not other family member has attempted
- May outshine everyone
- Although shares characteristics of the first born (e.g. high achievement drive), may not learn to share or cooperate
- Will learn to deal well with adults
- Often child is pampered
- May become dependently tied to one or both parents
- May want centre stage all the time, if challenged with this, will feel it's unfair
- Early recollections: one-time occurrences, usually before the age of 9.
- From the thousands of experiences we have before the age of 9, we tend to remember only 6-12 memories.
- Used as a projective technique and to assess...
o Client's convictions about self, others, life and ethics
o Client's stance in relation to the counseling session and the counseling relationship
o Client's coping patterns
o Individual strengths, assets, and interfering ideas.
- Can be very important as its through the family that we form our sense of self and our world view
- Alder first to talk about time limited therapy → cut through a lot with the question "What are your earliest memories".
- Trying to elicit the experiences that affected development- how our perception of the past and interpretation of early events has a continuing influence.
universal life tasks
- Build friendships- social task
- Establish intimacy- love-marriage task
- Contribute to society- occupational task
- In reality, most people who seek therapy are struggling to meet one or more of these tasks.
approach to life
- By first 6 years of life one forms an approach to life
- Behaviour is purposeful and goal-oriented
- Humans are motivated by social goals rather than urges
- Focus on conscious rather than subconscious
- Role of family in the development of the individual is emphasized
- Guiding self-ideal leads us to strive towards superiorirty/perfection
life style or style of life
- Alder said: the style of life of a tree is the individuality of a tree expressing itself and moulding itself in an environment
- One's lifestyle was how you live your life; handle your problems and interpersonal relations.
- The connecting themes and rules of interaction that unify all our actions; our perceptions regarding self, others and the world.
- Lifestyle is comparable to the psych, personality.
o It is what we are, who we are, what we want to be.
o The life style is usually set in motion by age 5/4
o The persons opinion of self and world, and his or her unique way of striving for the goal in his or her particular situation
- For Alder, meanings are not determined by situation but we are self-determined by the meaning we attribute to a situation.
- Style of life is equated with self or ego, a unity of personality.
- Individuality is seen as the individual form of creative activity
- In striving for goals we develop a style of life
- He thought we all feel inferior, particularly when we are growing up - we recognise we are helpless
- Its natural and innate- not something that is necessarily bad
- When we feel inferiority we are immediately pulled up into striving for superiority
- This is not necessarily superiority over others- more about moving from incompetence to mastery of a task or skill
- Can seek to change a weakness into a strength
- We compensate for deficits in some areas and aim to excel in others
o Alder first to coin this term
o If we fail to reach compensation then the complex develops
o Not everyone who feels inferior develops the complex
o If you feel inferior then according to Adler you didn't manage to compensate in a correct way and unless you do so your feelings of inferiority will remain.
o The solution for treating this is compensating in the right direction.
o Affirmations, positive thinking etc. don't work
• For example, cannot compensate for being lonely and unpopular by getting a phD, instead should become active in peer groups to properly compensate and avoid the inferiority complex
o If you don't identify these feelings, they will remain.
treating inferiority complex
• According to Adler, stress contributes to feeling of inferiority; therefore he advised that art and drama should be used to relieve stress.
• The more social outings and involvement in social interest, the less feeling of inferiority the individual has.
• Also breathing exercises, focused meditation, self hypnosis, yoga, and humour in relieving stress
• Encouragement can also be used to combat the sense of discouragement.
• Encouragement as a technique: It is central to all phases of counseling and therapy. To instill the courage to be imperfect.
o Neurotic individuals strive for personal superiority
o Superiority over others rather than seeking better conditions for all society- Hitler
therapeutic goals- Alderian
- Main aim of therapy: to develop the client's sense of belonging and to assist in the adoption of behaviors and processes characterized by community feeling and social interest.
- This can be accomplished by increasing the client's self-awareness and challenging and modifying his or her fundamental premises, life goals and basic concepts.
- The counseling process focuses on providing information, teaching, guiding and offering encouragement to discouraged clients.
- Mosak and Maniacci lists these goals for the educational process of therapy:
o Fostering social interest
o Helping client's overcome feelings of discouragement and inferiity
o Modifying clients' views and goals- changing their life-style
o Changing faulty motivation
o Encouraging the individual to recognize equality among people
o Helping people to become contributing members of society.
therapist role Alderian
- Adlerians assume a non-pathological perspective and thus, do not label clients with pathological diagnoses.
- These therapists operate on the assumption that clients will feel and bahve better once they discover and correct their basic mistakes.
- Therapists tend to look for mistakes in thinking and valuing.
- Major function is to make a comprehensive assessment of the client's functioning- style of living and early recollections.
clients experience Alderian
- Client's focus their work on desired outcomes and a resilient lifestyle that can provide a new blueprint for their actions
- Clients explore private logic→ concepts about self, others and life that constitute the philosophy on which an individual's life-style is based.
- Private logic involves our beliefs that get in the way of social interact and that do not allow for useful belonging.
- Clients' problems arise because the confused drawn from private logic often do not conform to the requirements of social living.
therapeutic relationship Alderian
- Good client-therapist relation is one between equals→ based on cooperation, trust, respect, confidence, collaboration and alignment of goals.
- At the outset of counseling clients should formulate a contract detailing- what they want, how they to get where they want to go, what is preventing them these goals, how hey can change non-productive behavior etc.
- This contract sets out the goals and specifies the responsibilities of both therapist and client
- Developing a contract is not a requirement of Alderian therapy, but it does bring a tighter focus to therapy.
phases of alderman therapy
Not linear, do not progress in rigid steps
Phases - Alderian
1. Establish therapeutic relationship
2. Assessment phase
3. Encourage insight and understanding
4. Reorientation and re-education
areas of influence - Alderian
- Parent education
- Community health movement
- Couples counseling
- Family/group counseling
- Many of his ideas made their way into other schools of psychology→ CBT, existential
- Maslow and Rodgers influenced by Alder's work; often without much credit given to Adler.
- Alder said 'my psychology belongs to everyone' → not focused on being well known
- Allows for a variety of approaches, not a narrow view of humans
- Therapists using Adler's theories are more concerned for the person than the problem
- Introduced the concept of 'time-limited', brief therapy
- The 'earliest memory' technique is very time efficient and minimizes sessions required as you get "right to the point"
- Adler coined the 'magic wand' question..."The Question" - "If I had a magic wand that would eliminate your symptom immediately, what would be different in your life?"
- Flexibility and integrative nature- variety of techniques
strengths from a multicultural perspective- adlerian
- Many aspects congruent with many cutlures e.g. collectivism, pursing meaning in life, importance of family, co-operation as opposed to competitive and individualistic values.
- Emphasizes subjective fashion in which people vie whte world → respects for clients unique perceptions
- Conscious of the value of fitting techniques to each client's situation
- Value understanding the subjective world of each individual
- Focus on person in the environment (social context) enables cultural factors to be explored
limitations of - Alderian
- Tends to focus on the self being the locus of change and responsibility....some cultures do not view self as autonomous
- Also some cultures view counsellor as the 'expert' and expecting solutions
- Tends to oversimplify some complex human problems
- Assumptions about nuclear family- what about extended family households?
- Adler chose teaching and practicing before writing a well- defined and systematic theory, many people at the time considered his ideas too loose and simplistic
- A large part of the theory still requires empirical evidence
- Works best with highly verbal and intelligent clients. This might leave out many people who do not fit that category
- Adlerians do not like to make diagnoses, makes it hard in today's expectations of psychologists
deals with the inability to trust oneself and others, resulting in the fear of loving and forming close relationships and low self-esteem.
deals with the inability to recognize and express anger, leading to the denial of one's own power as a person and the lack of a sense of autonomy.
deals with the inability to fully accept one's sexuality and sexual feelings and also difficulty in accepting oneself as a man or woman.
sexual interests replaced by interests in school, sport etc., relationships with others
phallic stage revived, can deal with sexual energy by putting into
development of personality
- Freud proposed three early stages of development that often bring people to counseling when not appropriately resolved.
- According to the psychoanalytic view, these three areas of development are all grounded in the first 6 years of life.
- When a child's needs are not met during these stages, they may become fixated at that stage and behave psychologically immature ways later in life.
- Erikson built on Freud's ideas and developed the psychosocial stages→ the basic psychological and social tasks, which an individual needs to master.
o This theory holds that psychosexual growth and psychosocial growth take place together.
o At each stage of life we face the task of establishing equilibrium between our social world and ourselves.
o Development is divided by specific crises to be resolved→ a crisis is equivalent to a turning in life when we have the potential to move forward or to regress.
- Conscious: what's on the surface- we are aware of it (logic and reality)
- Unconscious: what is below the surface- below our awareness threshold (instincts and drives)
o Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious: dreams, slips of the tongue, posthypnotic suggestions, material derived from free-association and projective techniques, and symbolic content of psychotic symptoms.
- The aim of psychoanalytic therapy is to make the unconscious motives conscious
fear of danger from the external world
fear that the instincts will get out of hand and cause one to do something they will be punished for. Evoked by threats to the balance of power.
fear of one's own conscious. Evoked by threats to the balance of power.
examples of ego defence mechanisms
o Reaction formation
when is the client ready to terminate therapy (psychoanalysis)
o They and their therapist mutually agree that they have resolved those symptoms and core conflicts
o Have clarified and accepted their remaining emotional problems
o Have understood the historical roots of their problems
o Have mastery of core themes'
o Have insight into how their environment affects them and how they affect the environment
o Achieved reduced defensiveness
o Can integrate their awareness of past problems with their present relationships.
- Curtis and Hirsch suggest that termination tends to bring up intense feelings of attachment, separation and loss→ thus, termination date is set well in advance so feelings can be spoken about.
guidelines for working effectively with countertransference?
o Manage their countertransference in a way that is beneficial.
o Gain self-understanding and establish appropriate boundaries with clients.
o Personal therapy and clinical supervision for therapists can be most helpful in better understanding how their internal reactions influence the therapy process.
- Collective unconscious: contains the accumulation of inherited experiences of human and prehumen species
- Contents of collective unconscious (images of universal experiences) = archetypes
what are the most important archetypes?
- The most important archetypes: the persona, the anima and animus and the shadow.
a mask, or public face, that we wear to protect ourselves
The animus and the anima
represent both the biological and psychological aspects of masculinity and femininity- coexist in both sexes.
has the deepest roots and most dangerous of the archetypes. Represents our dark sight, thoughts, feelings and actions we tend to disown.
Emphasizes how we use interpersonal relationships (self objects) to develop our own sense of self
Emphasis the interactive process between client and therapist
Brief Psychodynamic therapy
Applies the principles of psychodynamic theory and therapy to treating selective disorders within 10-25 sessions. Borderline personality disorder responds well to this due to the containment
is part of classical psychoanalysis with the emphasis placed on the vocabulary of ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO and on the defense mechanisms.
Member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.
Proposed the aggression instinct
Departed from psychoanalysis and founded the Society of Individual psychology
Not as keen on the deterministic approach of Freud as Adler defied his own determinism- was a sickly child, was supposed to die, yet he felt he choose to change the predictions.
First systemic therapist→ understood people within the systems they live in.
Many of his ideas were a reflection of his own life
Individual psychology - what was his theory based on?
- The term individual psychology is a translation error
- Used the Latin word individum to indicate the inseparableness of human personality→ we can't be separated into different things- we are a whole
- Alder viewed individuals holistically, not as three separated structure of personality- id, ego and superego
- He was particularly concerned with the community well-being, not just an individual focus.
- His theory:
o Based on the concept of holism
o A phenomenological approach- subjective reality
o Teleological explanation of human behaviour- purposeful and goal-oriented
o Social interest is stressed
- He thought people could only be understood as integrated and complete beings
- All dimensions of a person are interconnected components
- More emphasis on interpersonal relationships than on the internal psychodynamics of a person
- He believed that we are not healthy if we are only concerned about our own lives
- This was one of his most important concepts
- He considered it a sign of good health to be doing things to make a difference in society
- Similar to Existential in that one should be engage in searching for meaning in one's life
- Tele-ology the study of purposes and causes
- We all are motivated by a desire to belong and not be isolated- without it we are discouraged
- If there is no sense of belonging- anxiety results
- Only when we feel united with others are we able to act with courage to deal with our problems
Purpose for life
- He believes becoming all you can be and striving for goals is how we can understand the individual
- We can create ourselves rather than just being shaped by our childhood experiences
- Alder emphasized that where we have come from is not as important as where we are striving to go.
- Clients are not psychologically sick but discouraged→ they favor the growth model of personality rather than the medical model.
1. Establish therapeutic relationship
a. Focusing on person-person interactions→ not starting with the problem
b. Instilling hope and faith
c. Listening with empathy
d. Therapist provides structure and assists with defining goals
2. Assessment phase
a. Aim: to get a deeper understanding of an individual's lifestyle
b. Focus is on the client's social and cultural context
c. Helps explore hypotheses
d. Subjective interview: 'How would things be different for you if you did not have this problem?'
e. Objective interview: medical history, social history, family constellation, early recollections etc.
f. Once material has been gathered integrated summaries are developed
3. Encourage insight and understanding
a. Alderians consider insight as a special form of awareness that facilitates a meaningful understanding within the therapeutic relationship and acts as a foundation for change.
b. Disclosure and well-timed interactions are techniques that facilitate the process of gaining insight
c. Different to PCT paraphrasing- more hunches or guesses→ we want to clarify with the person.
d. During this phase of therapy, the counselor helps the client to understand the limitations of the style of life the client has chosen.
4. Reorientation and re-education
a. Aim: helping clients discover a new and more functional perspective
b. During this phase, clients can choose to adopt a new style of life based on the insights that they have gained.
c. Reorientation involves shifting rules of interaction, process and motivation→ these shifts are facilitated through changes in self-awareness
d. More often clients need to be oriented toward the useful side of life
i. Useful side→ sense of belonging, being valued, having an interest in others and their welfare, courage, acceptance of imperfection, willingness to contribute etc.
ii. Useless side→self-absorption, withdrawal from life tasks, self-protection, or acts against one's fellow human beings. (People acting on this side are less functional and are more susceptible to psychopathology)
e. Interacted in more than changes in behaviours
f. Seek to help clients to gain courage and connect to strengths within themselves
g. Utmost importance is courage to an Adlerian therapist
- Encouragement is central to all phases of counseling and therapy
- Encouragement entails showing faith in people, expecting them to assume responsibility for their lives and valuing them for who they are.
- Clients often do not recognize their positive qualities or strengths → one of the main tasks of a therapist is to help them do so.
- Adlerians believe discouragement is the basic condition that prevents people from functioning.
- In the relationship phase, encouragement results from the mutual respect between client and counselor
-Assessment phase, clients are encouraged to recognize that they are in charge of their own lives and can make different choices based on new understandings
- During reorientation, encouragement comes when new possibilities are generated and when clients are acknowledged for taking positive steps to change.
what is included in the broader term of psychodynamics?
our behaviour and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motivations
our behaviour and feelings as adults are rooted in our childhood experiences
all behaviour has a cause (usually unconscious) even slips of the tongue
contains mental contents of which we could become aware if we attended to them
what clinical evidence did Freud present for postulating the unconscious?
• Slips of the tongue
• Posthypnotic suggestions
• Free association
• Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms
people in conscious thought may deny the existent of a traumatic or socially unacceptable fact
T/F: some say positive illusions can be adaptive
True; illusions about controlling events and the future can be essential for mental health
people defend against the recognition of their own negative qualities by projecting them onto to others
the key to projection is that the key personality feature is both projected onto others and denied in the self
another way to deal with anxiety is to isolate the events in memory
this is where the impulse, thought or act is not denied access to consciousness but is denied the normal accompanying emotion
intellectualisation- the emphasis on thought over emotion and feeling
people who use isolation often use the mechanism of undoing
the individual magically undoes one act or wish with another
i.e. negating thoughts of suicide by compulsively turning the gas jets on and off at home
the individual defends against expression of an unacceptable impulse by only recognising and expressing the opposite
the person who uses reaction formation cannot admit to other feelings
e.g. man who wouldn't hurt a fly goes on a killing rampage
more complex and mature defence mechanism
people don't deny that thought and action accord, but they recognise the existence of an action and distort its underlying motive
behaviour is reinterpreted so that it appears reasonable and acceptable
the ego constructs a rational motive to explain an unacceptable action that is caused by the irrational impulses of the id
used to express an impulse of the id that is free of anxiety
the original object of gratification is replaced by a higher cultural goal that is far removed from a direct expression of the instinct.
in sublimation the instinct is turned into a new and useful channel
an idea thought or wish is dismissed from consciousness
viewed as playing a part in all other defence mechanisms
compensating for short comings in one area by excelling in another
what are Erikson's psychosocial stages of development?
T/F: dreams are the royal road to the unconscious?
what branch of psychology was founded by jung?
what are object relations?
emphasises interpersonal relationship, as there are represented intrapsychically and as they influence our interactions with people
what is self-psychology?
emphasises how we use interpersonal relationships (object relations) to develop own own sense of self
what were the three types of anxiety Freud proposed?
neurotic, moral and reality
What was Jung's view on free association?
Believed that free association leads away from the dream. Need to gather more information about
manifest content. Circumambulation: walk around the dream
what is teleological study?
looking at explaining human nature in terms of purposes and causes
what does contemporary psychoanalytic thinking emphasise?
the development of the ego and differentiation and individuation of the self
healthy personality development is based on what?
on the successful resolution of not psychosexual and psychosocial issues at appropriate stages throughout the life span
how does psychopathology result according to psychoanalysis?
the failing to meet some critical development task or becoming fixated at some early level of development
In modern psychoanalytic approaches, does the therapist remain anonymous?
no, the emphasis is given tot he here and now interactions between client and therapist and therapists can decide when and what to disclose to clients.
what does working through refer to?
a process of resolving basic conflicts that are manifested int he client's relationship with the therapist; achieved by the repetition of interpretations and by exploring forms of resistance.
T/F: analytic therapy is oriented toward achieving insight
T/F: working through is achieved almost totally by catharsis including getting out deeply buried emotions
T/F:From the freudian perspective, resistance is typically a conscious process
T/F: brief psychodynamic therapists assume a neutral therapeutic stance as a way to promote transference
T/F: In brief psychodynamic therapy assumes an active role in quickly formulating a therapeutic focus that goes beyond the surface of presenting problems
Borderline and narcissistic disorders have been given much attention by...
During psychoanalytic treatment, clients are typically asked....
not to make radical changes in their lifestyle
Adler named his theory Individual psychology becomes...
he wanted to avoid reductionism
T/F: while Adler considered social interest to be innate, he also believed that it must be learned, developed and used
what is fictional finalism?
an imagined central goal that gives direction to behaviour and unity to the personality; an image of what people would like if they were perfect and perfectly secure
what is guiding self-ideal?
another term for fictional finalist, which represents an individual's image of a goal of perfection.
T/F: striving for superiority is seen as a neurotic manifestation
T/F: assessment is a basic part of the counselling process
T/F: adlerians believe childhood experiences in themselves are the decisive factor in shaping personality
Adler linked the recognition of inferiority feelings with striving for perfection. this notion is best captured by the saying...
inferiority and the quest for mastery are two side of the same coin
what is the correct sequence of human experiencing from an Adlerian perspective?
first we think, then we feel, then we act.
alderians could best be described as using which techniques?
they fit a variety of techniques to the needs of each client
the concept of fictional finalist refers to...
an imagined central goal that guides a person's behaviour
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