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55 terms

Chapter 10: Islam

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mosque
Its main feature is a high dome with a large open area for worship inside
minaret
Tall towers with pointed tops; there are often four of these at the corners of a mosque
hajj
A Muslim pilgrimage
fast
A period of going without food or drink
Hajrah
Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina
Kaaba
Contains the Black Stone and is the place of worship
Bedouin
Desert-dwellers who travel with their flocks to grazing cities
oasis
Area that is fertile, but surrounded by desert
Caliph
The first one was Abu-Bakr, Muhammad's closest advisor
technology
Use of a physical device or method used to accomplish a task
lingua franca
A common language used for certain communications by people who speak different languages in everyday life
algebra
Arab culture advanced this use of letters with numeric formulas to solve problems
What surrounds the Arabian Peninsula ?
Water
Why was Arabia not that important?
Much of Arabia is desert
Who are Bedouins?
Arabs who live in the desert and move between established grazing areas
What made Arab more important and why?
The war between the Persian and Byzantine empires because more merchants sent their wares to Arabia
What two cities are important to the story of Islam?
Mecca and Medina
Where and when was Muhammad born?
570 AD in Mecca
What is the Kaaba?
The central holy place in Islam
What happened that bothered Muhammad?
Traders forgot their responsibilities to others
What happened in the year 610?
Muhammad had a vision that on archangel called Muhammad a profit of God
What did Muhammad preach?
Muhammad preached in public
What happened to Muhammad?
Muhammad was prosecuted
What is the Hijrah?
The journey from Mecca to Medina
What message did Muhammad preach that helped stop the warring communities?
There was only one god with the promise of paradise afterlife for believers
What is a caliph?
A Muslim religious and political leader
Who was Abu-Bakr?
Muhammad's closest advisor
What is one reason why the Arabs were so successful in battle?
They mounted on horses and camels and armed with laces, bows, and swords
What happened in 732 and what did this mean?
The Arabs were defeated by an army led by Charles Martel. This meant that most of Europe would remain Christian. Dasmascus
What happened in 751 and what did this mean?
The Arabs defeated the Chinese. This meant that the Chinese empire would never again reach the far west.
What did the Umayyads do?
They moved from the capital of Muslim empire to Damascus
What 4 things did people dislike about Umayyad rule?
...
What did Al-Mansur do?
He built a new capital on the western banks of the Tigris River
What was the main reason that the Muslim empire declined?
...
What is Muhammad considered?
He is considered both the greatest of prophets and the revealer of the truth of Islam
What is the Qur'an?
The holy book of Islam
What are the Five Pillars of Islam (Definition) ?
The basic duties of all Muslims
What is the first pillar?
The statement of faith
What is the second pillar?
The duty to pray 5 times a day
What is a mosque ?
A Muslim house of worship
What is a minaret?
A high tower on a mosque
What is the third pillar?
The duty of giving alms
What is alms?
A donation to the poor
What is the fourth pillar?
The fast
What is fast?
Going without food or drink
What is the fifth pillar?
The pilgrimage to Mecca
What is the hajj?
The hajj is a Muslim pilgrimage
What are the 3 divisions of Islam and what do they believe?
A. - The Sunnite Muslims accepted the leadership in Abu-Bakr
B. - The Shi'i believe that Muhammad wished his cousin/son-in-law, Ali, to take over the leadership of his country
C. - Sufism Muslims believed in having close relationships with God.
What did Sultan Mahmud do and why?
Sultan Mahmud sent his soldiers to bring Persian poets to his capital because he wanted them to write stories where he was the hero.
Why were people in the Muslim empire luckier than most (4 reasons)?
The people in the Muslim empire were luckier than most because serious illness was taken care of in clean hospitals that were free to the public, Muslim doctors were highly skilled, the doctors had to pass an examination before they could practice with medicine and there were over 800 doctors in the city of Baghdad.
What was opened in Baghdad and what was unique about it?
Pharmacies, or drugstores, opened for the fist time in Baghdad. It was unique because ordinary people, as well as doctors could buy medicinal herbs, tonics, and ointments from all over the Muslim world.
Where do they think candy came from?
The Muslims think candy came from a sugar cane from India.
applied science
science put to practical use
What did Al-Idrisi do?
Al-Idrisi made a map of the world in which he divided the world into 4 sections.
What did they believe that the Quaran forbade?
They believed that the Quaran forbade human or animal figures in art.