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HISTORY OF ART

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Prehistoric Art
-The earliest surviving works of art are cave paintings and portable sculptures of humans or animals.
-Little is known about the original intention or meaning of these works.
-Buildings such as Stonehenge show the ability of prehistoric people to build elaborate religious structures using the post-and-lintel system of construction.
Ancient Near Eastern Art
-Brought about the birth of art in the service of the state and religion. Combined with writing, Mesopotamian objects gave us the first systematic record of human development.
-Buildings were created for religion, as were ziggurats, or the state, as were the palaces. They were built of mud-brick, and were either painted or faced with tile or stone.
-Large stelai commemorating the achievements of ancient rulers were erected throughout Mesopotamia.
-Guardian figures that are usually hybrids of men and animals protected the entrances to important sites.
-Assyrian lion reliefs are among the first organized narrative works of art in history.
Egyptian Art
-Spans a 3,000 year history
-Elaborate funerary practices led to the erection of mastabas, pyramids, and rock-cut tombs in sacred imperial precincts throughout Egypt.
-Figures generally have broad frontal shoulders and profiled heads, torsos, and legs.
-Old Kingdom figures show an unyielding stance and formidable expression; Middle Kingdom works have more relaxed figures and emotional faces; the New Kingdom is characterized by rounded and elongated figures that betray an intimacy hitherto unknown.
Aegean Art
-The Cycladic civilization of the Greek islands produced stylized statuettes of nude standing females and nude males playing instruments.
-The Minoans from the island of Crete built mixed-use palaces with complex ground plans.
-Mycenaeans from mainland Greece were noted for massive citadels marked by Cyclopean masonry and corbelled vaulting.
Greek Art
-Introduces the concept of classical art.
-Sculpture is characterized by the idealizing of the human form, the beauty of the nude body, and the ability of figures to express a great range of emotions.
-Temples become extremely influential in the development of European architecture.
-Pottery echoes the development of --- sculpture and forms virtually all our knowledge about --- painting.
Etruscan Art
-Most of what is known about --- civilization comes down to us in elaborate necropoli filled with tombs that resemble large rooms in a home.
-Sculptures and temples are heavily influenced by Archaic Greek works.
-Sculptors excel in bronze and terra-cotta production.
Roman Art
-Reflects the ambitions of a powerful empire-monumental buildings and sculptures reflect the glory of the gods and the state.
-Architecture is revolutionary in its understanding of the powers of the arch, the vault, and concrete.
-A history of --- painting survives on the walls of Pompeiian villas.
-Show an interest in the basic elements of perspective and foreshortening.
-Sculpture is greatly indebted to Greek models.
Late Antique Art
-Christianity begins as a prohibited and therefore underground religion. It's earliest works appear in the catacombs and on the sarcophagi.
-Images are inspired by the classical past but are also influenced by Constantinian artwork from the Late Roman Empire; for the most part the subject matter is taken from the Old and New Testaments.
-Buildings use both the axially planed Roman basilicas and the centrally planned Roman temple forms.
-Other cultures flourished during this time period, such as the Early Jews, who generally prohibit a narrative artistic tradition. Occasionally figurative work appears in such places as Dura Europos.
Byzantine Art
-Empire was born out of the remains of the Roman Empire, and continued many elements of the Roman classical tradition, but in a Christian framework.
-Paintings specialized in mosaics, icons, and manuscript illumination.
-Art has two traditions: one reflecting the classical past and a second interested in hieratic medieval style-often in the same work.
-Architects invented the pendentive and squinch for buildings known for their mysterious and shadowy interiors.
Islamic Art
-The chief building for Muslim worship is the mosque, which directs the worshipper's attention to Mecca through a niche called mihrab.
-Calligraphy is the most prized art form, appearing on most Islamic works of art.
-Both figural and nonfigural works incorporate calligraphy with arabesques and tessellations.
-Persian manuscripts are fine examples of --- figural art.
Early Medieval Art
-The Migration period of the --- featured portable
works that were done in the animal style.
-Characteristics of --- include horror vacui and interlacing patterns.
-Art at the court of Charlemagne begins the first of many Western European revivals of Ancient Rome.
-Ottonian art revives large scale sculpture and architecture.
Romanesque Art
-Shows a revitalization of large scale architecture and sculpture.
-Pilgrimages to sacred European shrines increase the flow of people and ideas around the continent.
-Architects develop the apses of churches to accommodate large crowds of pilgrims.
-Church portal sculptures stress themes of the Last Judgement and the needs for salvation.
-Manuscript painting and weaving flourish as art forms.
Gothic Art
-Architecture built on development made in the Romanesque: the rib vault, the pointed arch, and the bay system of construction.
-Architecture reached new vertical heights through the use of flying buttresses that carry the weight of the roof to the walls outside the building and deflect wind pressure.
-Sculpture, particularly on portals, is more three dimensional that it's Romanesque counterparts, emerging from the wall, and emphasizing the verticality of the structure.
-Manuscript painting is influenced by the luminosity and richness of stained glass windows.
Gothic Art In Italy
-Forms a bridge between Medieval and Renaissance art.
-The artist becomes an important historical personality whose life story can be traced and recorded.
-Aspects of ancient sculpture are revitalized under the artistic leadership of the Pisani family.
-The Sienese and Florentine schools of painting dominate trecento art.
Early Renaissance in Northern Europe: 15th Century
-An active and prosperous capitalist society inspired a cultural ferment in Flanders and Holland.
-Important secular works of --- architecture are influenced by Gothic church architecture.
-The International Gothic style dominates Northern European painting in the early 15th century.
-Flemish painting is characterized by symbolically rich layers of meaning applied to crowded compositions with high horizon lines.
-Secular art becomes increasingly important.
-The introduction of printmaking, the first mass-produced art form, radically transforms art history.
Early Renaissance in Italy: 15th Century
-The revitalization of classical ideas in literature, history, and philosophy had it's impact in the fine arts.
-Courts were influenced by the spirit of humanism, which stressed the secular alongside the religious.
-Artists created realistic three dimensional paintings based on the newly rationalized theories on linear perspective.
-Sculpture is marked by a greater understanding of of human anatomy; there is a revival of large scale nude works.
-Architecture emphasizes open light spaces in a balanced and symmetrical environment.
High Renaissance
-The revitalization of the city of Rome under the patronage of Pope Julius II led to one of the most creative outbursts in the history of art.
-Artists seek to emulate Roman grandeur by undertaking awe-inspiring artistic projects.
-Compositions are marked by balance, symmetry, and ideal proportions. Triangular compositions are also favored.
-Venetian painters stress sensuous forms with sophisticated color harmonies.
-Portraits reveal the likenesses of the sitters as well as their character and personality.
Mannerism and Other Trends of Late 16th Century Italy
-Deliberately intellectual, asking the viewer to respond in a sophisticated way to the spatial challenges presented in a painting or a sculpture.
-Painting and sculpture are characterized by complicated compositions, distorted figure styles, and complex allegorical interpretations.
-Architecture often employs classical elements in a new and unusual way that defies traditional formulas.
Later Renaissance in Northern Europe and Spain: 16th Century
-The Reformation sparked a series of iconoclasms throughout Northern Europe, destroying much great art work and prohibiting new work from being created; nonetheless, in most places this time was a creative and dynamic period.
-Artist, particularly sculptors, sought new ways to represent figures without appearing to create pagan idols.
-Art is powerfully influenced by the achievements of the Italian Renaissance although most painters retained their own artistic traditions.
-Albrecht Durer represents the combination of --- realism and interests in detail with the Italian concern for size and monumentality.
Baroque Art
-The Counter-Reformation, which symbolized the Catholic resurgence, finds an artistic parallel in --- of Italy, Flanders, Spain, and France.
-Also flourishes in Protestant Holland, which becomes a counter voice to Catholic art.
-Painting is divided into two schools of thought: the classicists, inspired by the works of central Italian artists such as Raphael; and the naturalists, inspired by Venetian painters such as Titian.
-Artists experiment with different art forms, such as genre paintings, landscapes, and still lifes, and bring them artistically to the same level as transitional subjects.
-Architecture is associated with the majestic royal courts of Europe.
The Rococo in Europe and 18th Century English Painting
-A shift of power from the royal court to the aristocrats is paralleled in the shift in taste from the Baroque to the ---.
-The French Royal Academy dictated artistic taste in 18th century Paris.
-Architecture seeks to unite the arts in a coherent artistic experience.
-A quintessential --- painting is the "fete galante", which portrays the aristocracy in their leisurely pursuits.
-Developed a strong school of satirical painting
Neoclassicism
-The Enlightenment brought about a rejection of royal and aristocratic authority. The Rococo style was replaced by ---, which was perceived as more democratic.
-Inspired by the unearthing of the ruins at Pompeii and the books of art theorist Johann Winckelmann.
-Even if works of art depict current events or contemporary portraits, there are frequent classical allusions.
-The late 18th century was the age of the Industrial Revolution: new technologies such as cast iron were introduced into architecture, and for the first time it became more economical to carve from bronze than marble.
Romanticism
-Heavily influenced by a spirit of individuality and a freedom of expression unique up until this time.
-Enjoys the sublime in nature and the revolutionary in politics.
-Painters explore the in conscience world of dreams and fantasies.
-A new art form called photography is invented; it's immediacy makes it an overnight sensation.
-Architecture revives historical forms, especially from the Middle Ages.
Late 19th Century Art
-The Realist art movement was philosophically based on the theory of positivism.
-Japanese art had profound impact on --- painting.
-Plein-air painting dominates much of Impressionist painting.
-Symbolist painters seek to portray mystical personal visions.
-The skyscraper was born as a result of new technological advances, the invention of the elevator, and the ride of land values.
-Art Noiveau seeks to create a unified artistic experience combining painting, sculpture, and architecture; it relies on organic forms and motifs.
Early 20th Century Art
-Flourished at a time of immense political unrest and social upheaval.
-Artists and architects were quick to embrace new technologies in the creation of their works.
-Avant-garde patrons cultivated cutting-edge artist, allowing them to flourish.
-The Armory Show introduced modern art to America, and Gallery 291 exhibited photographs beside paintings as works of art.
-Takes on a more international flavor than ever-great movements take place in locations hitherto thought of a cultural backwaters like Mexico and Russia.
-The period is characterized by artists who were also theoreticians and published manifestos on their artistic beliefs.
Late 20th Century Art and the Contemporary World
-A restless era of great experimentation, beginning with the achievements of The New York School.
-Characterized by short-lived movements of intense activity.
-Technological developments have brought about a flood of new products that the artists can use to express him or herself.
-Most artists work in a variety of media.
-Architecture has been radically altered by the introduction of the computer, which makes drawing ground plans and sections easier and more efficient than ever before; the computer also checks automatically for structural errors.
-The number of important female artists, gallery owners, patrons, and customers has grown significantly in the late modern era, bringing about a closer equality of the sexes.
Indian and Southeast Asian Art
-Stresses the interconnectiveness of all the arts: architecture, painting, and sculpture.
-Buddhist and Hindu philosophies form a background to --- artistic thought.
-A vibrant school of manuscript painting using brilliantly applied water colors flourished.
Chinese Art
-The philosophies of Laozi and Confucius permeate --- thought, including the fine arts.
-Calligraphy is the most respected --- art form.
-Painting formats include handscrolls, hanging scrolls, fans, and album leaves.
-Architecture is based on courtyard style houses that express the philosophy about family and social position.
-Art has a fondness for the monumental and the grand.
Japanese Art
-Has one of the best preserved continuous artistic traditions in the world.
-Zen Buddhists thought dominates much --- artistic production.
-The tea ceremony is a unique feature of --- culture.
-Ukiyo-e prints were originally sold as a middle-class art form in ---, and became incredibly influential among the avant-garde in Europe.
Art of the Americas
-Developed huge city states that prominently featured temple complexes revitalizing any on earth.
-Sculptures vary from the monumental used as centerpieces in great plazas to intimate works of jewelry for private adornment.
-Local materials play a large role in the creation of works of art: wood for Northwest Coast Indians, Adobe for Southwestern Indians, stone in Mesoamerica, and so on.
-Old civilizations form foundations for new ones: that is, pyramids often encase small structures the way cultures build upon pew existing sites.
African Art
-Much of the art is created around spirituality, the spirit world, and the role of ancestors in our lives.
-Artists prefer wood, but notable works are also done in ivory and metal.
-Art is rarely decorative, but made for a purpose, often for ceremonies.
-Architecture is predominantly made of mud-brick; stone is rare, but can be seen in Zimbabwe and Ethiopian churches.
Pacific Art
-Clearly defined gender roles determine which genres could be produced by which sex.
-Great woodcarvers, using this material to make everything from masks to bisj poles to meetinghouses.
-Artists use intricate lines to create masterpieces on tapa or bark or in tattooing.
-The Art of the Easter Islands, with it's giant stone carvings, is unusual in art.
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