32 terms

HBSE- Chapter 4- Key Terms


Terms in this set (...)

Accommodation (cognitive)
The process of altering a schema when a new situation cannot be incorporated within an existing schema.
A change in functioning or coping style that results in a better adjustment of a person to his or her environment.
Assimilation (cognitive)
In cognitive theory, the incorporation of new experiences into an existing schema.
Conscious thinking processes; mental activities of which the individual is fully aware. These processes include taking in information from the environment, synthesizing that information, and formulating plans of action based on synthesis.
A person's efforts to master the demands of stress, including the thoughts, feelings, and actions that constitute those efforts.
A major upset in psychological equilibrium as a result of some hazardous event, experienced as a threat or loss, with which the person cannot cope.
Defense mechanisms
Unconscious, automatic responses that enable a person to minimize perceived threats or keep them out of awareness entirely.
A mental structure of personality that is responsible for negotiating between internal needs of the individual and the outside world.
Ego psychology
A theory of human behavior and clinical practice that views activities of the ego as the primary determinants of behavior.
A feeling state characterized by one's appraisal of a stimulus, changes in bodily sensations, and expressive gestures.
Emotional intelligence
A person's ability to process information about emotions accurately and effectively, and consequently to regulate emotions in an optimal manner.
Emotion-focused coping
Coping efforts in which a person attempts to change either the way a stressful situation is attended to (by vigilance or avoidance) or the meaning of what is happening. Most effective when situations are not readily controllable by action.
Multiple intelligence's
The eight distinct bio-psychosocial potentials, as identified by Howard Gardner, with which people process information that can be activated in cultural settings to solve problems or create products that are of value in the culture.
Neural plasticity
The capacity of the nervous system to be modified by experience.
Object relations theory
A psychodynamic theory that considers that our ability to form lasting attachments is based on early experiences of separation form and connection with our primary caregivers.
Early development; most often refers to a rare level of intelligence at an early age, but may refer to "premature" ability to development in a number of areas.
Primary emotions
Emotions that developed as specific reactions and signals with survival value for the human species. They serve to mobilize and individual, focus attention, and signal one's state of mind to others; examples include anger, fear, sadness, joy, and anticipation.
Problem- focused coping
Coping efforts in which the person attempts to change a stress situation by acting on the environment. Most effective when situations are controllable by action.
Psychoanalytic theory
A theory of human behavior and clinical intervention that assumes the primacy of internal drives and unconscious mental activity in determining human behavior.
The study of the mind and mental processes.
Relational coping
Coping that takes into account actions that maximize the survival of others as well as oneself.
Relational theory
A theory that proposes that the basic human tendency is relationships with others, and that our personalities are formed through ongoing interactions with others.
Schema (schemata)
An internalized representations of the world, including systematic patterns of thought, action, and problem solving.
Secondary emotions
Emotions that are socially acquired. They evolved as humans developed more sophisticated means of learning, controlling, and managing emotions to promote flexible cohesion in social groups. Examples include envy, jealousy, anxiety, guilt, shame, relief, hope, depression, pride, love, gratitude, and compassion.
An essence of who we are that is more or less enduring.
Social network
The people with whom a person routinely interacts; the patterns of interaction that result from exchanging resources with others.
Social support
The interpersonal interactions and relationships that provide people with assistance or feelings of attachment to others they perceive as caring.
A personality characteristic that changes over time, depending on the social or stress context.
Any biological, psychological, or social event in which environmental demands or internal demands, or both, tax or exceed the adaptive resources of the individual.
A stable personality characteristic.
Traumatic stress
Stress associated with events that involve actual or threatened severe injury or death of oneself or significant others.
Mental activities of which one is not aware but that influence behavior.