92 terms

2015 WH Unit 2 Renaissance Reformation and Exploration

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Describe the inquistion in one word.
court
What was the inquisition looking for?
heretics
What is heresy?
going against the church
Who is the most important in the Catholic Church?
Pope, then cardinals, then bishops
What happens in purgatory?
sins are cleaned
What are common misconceptions about Catholocism?
Catholics don't pray to Mary or to saints, they pray through them.
What does Renaissance mean? When did it start?
Rebirth. 1300s
What is antiquity?
Based on the word antique. Means old and valuable. In history, it refers to Greece and Rome.
In which two ways did eastern or Muslim people lead to the renaissance?
Preserved texts from antiquity, focused themselves on learning.(The Romans got rid of the old texts)
What region/country was where the Renaissance began? Why was it the place?
Northern Italy. It was on the Mediterranean where a lot of trade and cultural interaction happened. Also, it was rich because of the Catholic Church.
Finish the quote. The Human is the center __________________________________________________.
And measure of all things
Name a rich family that commissioned art in Florence.
Medici
Give three aspects of Renaissance art.
Realistic, 3D, about Christianity or antiquity
Name the three artists of the High Renaissance and one work by each.
Leonardo - Mona Lisa
Raphael - School of Athens
Michelangelo - Sistine Chapel
Who was Gutenberg? Why is he important today?
Invented the moveable type printing press. Made books common in Europe.
Who was Machiavelli? Why is he important today?
Wrote The Prince. Talked about how the job of officials is just to stay in power, not to serve the people. It is the basis for modern politics as well.
What were four reasons writers criticizes the Catholic Church?
Indulgences
priests couldn't marry
Bible was in foreign language
priests were seen as holy
What was Luther's job?
Monk
What is an indulgence?
Donating to the church for time out of purgatory
What did Luther do with his 95 Theses?
Nailed them to his church's door
How did the Catholic Church deal with Luther? Describe the Diet of Worms.
He was excommunicated after he did not recant (take back his words).
What is excommunication?
When you are kicked out of the Catholic Church. Means you can't talk to God.
What was the outcome of the Peace of Augsburg?
The Holy Roman Emperor said princes of each part of Germany could choose if their provinces were Protestant or Catholic.
How did Luther's actions affect people that eventually came to America?
He started Protestantism, which took over much of Europe. Today, in America, most Christians are Protestants. Some people we call "pilgrims" were some of the first to come here for religious freedom. They ate turkey.
Why did Henry VIII change the religion of all of England? What the new church's name?
He wanted a boy son and wanted to divorce his wife and try with a new girl. The Pope said the Catholic Church would not allow divorce, so Henry started a new church called the Church of England AKA Anglican Church.
Why did "Bloody" Mary hate Protestants? Why was she called "Bloody" Mary?
She blamed Protestants for her and her mother being sent away by her dad, Henry VIII.
What did Elizabeth do for England?
She brought at time of peace and cultural growth called the Elizabethan Era. It was when Shakespeare and other greats lived.
What two things came out of the Council of Trent?
Catholic Church stopped indulgences
Bible in vernacular.
How were the Jews treated during the wars between the Catholics and Protestants?
Both treated the Jews badly, they forced them into slums called ghettos.
What belief system in the Renaissance focused on the importance of the individual. The people who followed this belief system worked hard to make themselves good at many things.
Humanism
What is the seat of the Roman Church? (center)
The Vatican
Where is the Vatican today?
In Rome, Italy.
How were Italy and Germany organized during the Renaissance and Reformation?
Lots of tiny city-states. Not unified.
What does patron mean?
Someone who pays for something.
What family was a major patron for art in Florence, Italy?
Medici
What city in Italy was where the Renaissance began?
Florence
What is a Renaissance Man?
Someone who is skilled at a lot of things. Like Mr. Brock.
What is a pieta?
A depiction of the Virgin Mary holding Jesus after the crucifixion.
What panel from the Sistine Chapel is the most famous? It shows Adam and God.
"The Creation of Man"
What are Adam and God doing in "The Creation of Man"?
Touching fingers
Why is Bi Sheng important?
He invented movable type 300 years before Gutenberg?
What is "The Prince" about?
What a king needs to do to rule. Sometimes, you have to do things that are not too nice to keep your power.
Who wrote "The Prince"?
Machiavelli
What are two ways Gutenberg helped Luther?
He made copies of the 95 Theses and spread them around Europe.
He copied the "Luther Bible" and spread it around Europe.
What is a Protestant?
A protestant traces their beliefs back to the "protests" of Luther. They are basically any Christian that is not Eastern Orthodox and not Catholic.
What did Luther think about priests?
They were just regular people. Not holy.
What did Luther think about indulgences?
He disliked them greatly, yo.
What did Luther think about who should be able to preach?
Any man
What did Luther think about marriage?
Any preacher should be able to be married.
What did Luther think about the Bible?
It should be in the vernacular which for him was German.
What is vernacular?
The common language of the people.
Who did Luther marry?
An ex-Catholic nun...naturally.
What did Luther say about Jews?
That he'd like to baptize them and drown them at the same time.
Why did the Catholic Church give in on the Peace of Augsburg?
The peasants were rioting against the Church and they didn't want to see any more people die.
Tell what happened to Henry VIII's wives in order. There were six.
Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived
What was Henry VIII's family name?
Tutor
What are the three reasons for European exploration?
God, Glory and Gold
What does God mean in the three reasons for European exploration?
The need to spread Christianity
What does Glory mean in the three reasons for European exploration?
The explorers were famous for their adventures
What does Gold mean in the three reasons for European exploration?
They could make huge profits from stealing gold from the lands they explored or they could sell spices for huge profits to their countries.
Which people gave compasses, astrolabes, maps and triangle sails to Europeans who used them to explore?
Arabs
What country started exploring first from Europe?
Portugal
What did Prince Henry the Navigator do to start European exploration?
He started a school that trained explorers on how to sail on the ocean.
Where did the Portuguese explore first?
The west coast of Africa. (because they were close to it)
What did the Spanish do in Mexico?
They took over the Aztecs and took their gold.
Why was it so easy for the Spanish to takeover the Incas and the Aztecs?
They had diseases and better weapons and horses.
Who was the last leader of the Aztecs?
Montezuma
What did the Spanish do in Peru?
They took over the Incas and took their gold.
Where did the Portuguese take over?
Brazil
What was the Columbia Exchange?
The exchange of goods, diseases and people between the old and new world and vice versa.
What was the old and new worlds?
Old - Afroeurasia
New - North and South America
What things came from Afroeurasia to the Americas?
Slaves, diseases (smallpox), animals like horses and cows
What things came from the Americas to Afroeurasia?
Crops like tomatoes, potatoes and tobacco
Which European country controlled New York before it was New York?
Netherlands (Dutch)
Which European country controlled Virginia and Massachusetts?
England
Which European country controlled Canada and Louisiana?
France
What crop led to an influx of slaves from Afroeurasia to the Americas?
Sugar
What item did Europeans trade most for slaves in Africa?
Guns
Most slaves were ________ from Africa.
Prisoners of War
6=Ancient civilization that flourished in present day Peru.
Incas
11=A Portuguese navigator of the sixteenth century. His crew was the first to sail around the Earth, although he was killed on the voyage11
Ferdinand Magellan
13=In 1494, what papal decree divided all future discoveries between Spain and Portugal?13
Treaty of Tordesillas
61=The Treaty of Tordesillas divided all future discoveries between Spain and Portugal along a line known as what?
Line of Demarcation
First European to Asia in 1400s by land
Marco Polo
First to sail around the world (died in the Philippines)
Magellan (his ship made it back home)
What percentage of all the slaves shipped across the Atlantic arrived in what is today the US?
Around 5%
Where did most African slaves end up?
Brazil and the Caribbean
What religion spread from Northern Africa to the south?
Islam
What island nation in the Pacific becomes Muslim by interacting with traders?
Indonesia - they became Muslim b/c of the Muslim traders coming there on the monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean
Why did Portugal settle the Moluccas?
For the spices there
Why didn't Europe have as big of an impact on mainland Asia as it did on the islands?
Mainland had stronger government and bigger population than the islands
In Southeast Asia, what were the two main religions on the islands? What was the big religion on the mainland?
Mainland - Buddhism and Hinduism
Islands - Islam