28 terms

HBSE- Chapter 6- Key Terms

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Accommodation (cultural)
Process of partial or selective cultural change in which members of non-dominant groups follow the norms, rules, and standards of the dominant culture only in specific circumstances and contexts.
Assimilation (cultural)
The process of change whereby individuals of one society or ethnic group are culturally incorporate or absorbed into another by adopting the patterns and norms of the host culture.
Behavior settings theories
Theories that propose that consistent, uniform patterns of behavior occur that consistent, uniform patterns of behavior occur in particular places, or behavior settings.
Biophilia
A genetically based need of humans to affiliate with nature.
Built environment
The portion of the physical environment attributable solely to human effort.
Common sense
Shared ways of perceiving reality and shared conclusions drawn from lived experience; an organized body of culture-bound beliefs that members of a community or society believe to be second nature, plan, obvious, and self-evident.
Control theories
Theories that focus on the issue of how much control we have over our physical environment and the attempts we make to gain control.
Crowding
Unpleasant experience of feeling spatially cramped.
Cultural hegemony
The all-encompossing dominance of particular structures in society. Not limited to political control, but includes a way of seeing the world that includes cultural and political dominance.
Cultural innovation
A process of adapting, modifying, and changing culture through interaction over time.
Cultural relativism
The position that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture.
Culture
Shared cognitive and emotional frames and lenses that serve as the bases for an evolving map for living. It is constructed from the entire spectrum of human actions and the material circumstances of people in societies as they attempt to create order, meaning, and value.
Culture of poverty
A term coined by Oscar Lewis to describe the unique culture and ways of those who are impoverished; it has been used over time to look at impoverished people as having cultural deficits.
Customs
Beliefs, values, and behaviors, such as marriage practices, child-rearing practices, dietary preferences, and attire, that are handed down through generations and become a part of a people's traditions.
Density
Ratio of persons per unit area of a space
Ecotherapy
Exposure to nature and the outdoors as a component of psychotherapy.
Ethnocentrism
Considering one's own culture as superior, and judging culturally different practices (beliefs, values, behavior) by the standards and norms of one's own culture.
Natural environment
The portion of the environment influenced primarily by geological and nonhuman biological forces.
Personal space
The physical distance we choose to maintain in interpersonal relationships.
Place attachment
A process of in which individuals and groups form bonds with places.
Place identity
A process in which individuals and groups form bonds with places
Postmodernism
A term used to describe contemporary culture as a postindustrial culture in which people are connected across time and place through global electronic communications; emphasis is on the existence of different worldviews and concepts of reality.
Practice orientation
A way of thinking about culture that recognizes the relationships and mutual influences among structures of society and culture, the impact of history, and the nature and impact of human action.
Race
A system of social identity based on biological markers such as skin color that influence economic, social, and political relations.
Stimulation theories
Theories that focus on the physical environment as a source of sensory information that is necessary for human well-being.
Symbol
Something verbal (language, words) or nonverbal (such as a flag) that comes to stand for something else; a way of expressing meaning.
Territoriality
A pattern of behavior of a group or individual that involves marking or personalizing a territory to signify ownership and engaging in behaviors to protect it from invasion.
Tradition
A process of handing down from one generation to another certain cultural beliefs and practices. In particular, a process of ratifying certain beliefs and practices by connecting them to selected social, economic, and political practices.